• 최종편집 2019-10-22(화)

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  • INTERVIEW, The Man Called ‘Nam June Paik’s Hands’
      Lee Jung-sung was running an electronics shop in Seoul in 1988 when he first met Nam June Paik, the father of video art. For nearly two decades thereafter, Lee worked as Paik’s project technician and main collaborator. Lee is still busy these days overseeing the late virtuoso’s legacy, restoring and maintaining his works. ‘Nam June Paik Art Center’ is located in Yong-in City. We can meet his masterpieces anytime. Behind Nam June Paik, the world’s first video artist, there was Lee Jung-sung. Their first collaborative work was a tower of 1,003 TV sets titled “The More the Better” (Dadaikseon, 1988). In the ensuing 18 years, Lee engineered the installation of Paik’s artworks, and as they crisscrossed the globe, Lee morphed into Paik’s closest collaborator and source of ideas. It could be said that Nam June Paik’s brain soared on the wings of Lee Jung-sung’s hands, and Lee Jung-sung’s hands were able to build amazing things because of Nam June Paik’s brain.  Sowing Trust Lim Hee-yun: So how did you meet Nam June Paik? Lee: I have to set the scene first. The household appliances trade show in Korea began in 1986. The Seoul International Trade Fair opened in what is now the COEX Convention Centre in Samseong-dong, and the competition between Samsung and LG was really intense. They were having a battle of ideas, under strictest secrecy, to come up with the most innovative display for the grand opening. The Samsung side commissioned me to install a “TV wall.” I managed to build a wall of 528 TVs in little time, so after that they got me to do all the displays for the major Samsung Electronics stores in Seoul. And then it was 1988. Mr. Paik was asking around for a technician to help build “The More the Better,” and eventually got in touch with me because I was doing that work for Samsung. He asked me, “Can you do me one with 1,003?” And, of course, I said, “Yes, I can do that.” I was thinking, “I did one with 528, just doubling the number shouldn’t mean it can’t be done.” At that point I had no idea about what an important figure Nam June Paik was, or what an embarrassment it would be on the global stage if we couldn’t pull it off. They say, don’t they, that you’re bravest when you know nothing. Lim: Did the work on “The More the Better” go smoothly? Lee: Mr. Paik tasked me with installing the 1,003 TVs and then he went off to America, simply saying, “Do a good job.” At the time, the biggest challenge to installing TVs on such a large scale was how to deal with the video feed. Even in Japan, they only had a device that could distribute video to six TVs simultaneously. And it was 500 dollars apiece, which was a lot of money. So I started making my own from scratch. In the end, the 1,003 TVs worked perfectly by the promised date of the live broadcast. It was the best feeling ever. I think Mr. Paik was really surprised, too. Later on, when he came back to Korea, he admitted to me, “To be honest, I thought if even half of them worked, it would be a big achievement.” Then he asked, “I have to make another work in New York. Could you do it?” And I responded, “Sure, yeah, why not?” The work was “Fin de Siecle II,” which was installed at the Whitney Museum in 1989. After that one, Mr. Paik sent me to Switzerland where I couldn’t even speak the language. I had to install 80 TVs in a week, and because of my massive bag full of TV parts and tools, I was stopped by customs at Zurich Airport. I wrangled with the customs officer, speaking in Korean and making signs with my hands and feet. I managed to persuade the gallery to extend the time I was able to work until after closing. I finished the work in less than five days and was able to go off and do some sightseeing. That was when Mr. Paik really came to believe in my grit and adaptability. Exchange of Ideas Lim: You started out as a technician. How were you able to understand the creative world of Nam June Paik when even people in the art world at the time weren’t able to keep up with him? Lee: I’ll turn that question around. Do you understand Picasso’s paintings? There’s no right answer when it comes to appreciating works of art. There’s nothing to wonder about with why people like a certain artwork either. You just need to feel for yourself, “That’s fun,” or “That looks good.” At the beginning, I also just passively made whatever Mr. Paik instructed me to make. But from some point or other, I started candidly proposing my ideas, too. If I were to say, “I think it would be good if we add something like this, what do you think?” he’d respond with, “Hey, buster, you should have said so from the beginning.” And then I realized, “Ah, if I suggest my ideas in advance, he really would take them on.” Yes, he would readily take on the advice I gave in consideration of the environment of the exhibition space and technological limitations. Lim: Is there a lot involved to maintain Nam June Paik’s works? And what work do you do now aside from that? Lee: Not long ago, I worked on restoring the work “108 Agonies” (1998) in Gyeongju. It was so damaged that it took me a whole week, and I also did some work on “Fractal Turtleship” (1993) at the Daejeon Museum of Art. Recently, I went over to the Whitney Museum in New York to help with the conservation of “Fin de Siecle II.” Aside from that, I give advice to young budding artists, and I occasionally give lectures, too. This autumn, there’s a big Nam June Paik retrospective in Nanjing, China, and I think I’ll have to work on that one, too. I also have to keep pouring my heart and soul into the organization of his archive. Preservation and Restoration  Lim: Now the era of YouTube is in full swing. How do you look back on Nam June Paik’s art in this day and age?  Lee: He went around piling up debts to create innovative artworks, but with today’s technology he would have made loads of really unusual works. In his later years, he stopped doing video art and tried to go into laser art, but the overheads were just so high. He was just about able to use military-grade lasers. If lasers and LED had been in use when Mr. Paik was doing his work, we probably would have gotten to discover another Nam June Paik, entirely different from the one we know. Lim: Do you still sometimes think of the days when you were working with Nam June Paik? Lee: Of course. I was nothing but a technician, but since I worked with Mr. Paik on his artworks, I got to travel the world and wanted for nothing. To tell you the truth, even now, once or twice a month, I meet him in my dreams and we work together. It’s completely new work. In the dreams, we never work again on the works we made in the past. Maybe his insistence on always going after what’s new is still alive.   Lim Hee-yun, KOREA FOUNDATION
    • Local-East
    • 용인
    2019-10-02
  • Following King Jeong jo to his ‘Brilliant Fortress’
        Hwaseong Fortress, the epitome of late Joseon Dynasty architecture, surrounds the traditional city center of Suwon. Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997, the fortress was carefully thought out and meticulously designed to reflect the thoughts and ideals of King Jeongjo, the 22nd ruler of Joseon, who also had the entire construction process precisely documented. In the spring of 1795, Hanyang, the capital of the Joseon Dynasty and today’s Seoul, overflowed with visitors from all over the country. Suspension of the night curfew and temporary tents could not resolve the overwhelming demand for accommodations. But shopkeepers celebrated the unexpected surge of customers. The visitors had all come for one reason: to catch a sight of the king’s procession. Posters put up throughout the country announced the king’s impending travel, informing commoners when they could see him at close range. In those days, the king was likened to a sun god. Seeing the king was compared to being awash in a celestial light. Those who traveled from afar to catch a glimpse were called gwangwang minin, meaning “the people who came to see the light.” Today the word gwangwangmeans “tourism.” The King’s Filial PietyAt around seven in the morning on the ninth day of the second month of 1795, King Jeongjo formally greeted his mother, Lady Hyegyeong, at the front gate of Changdeok Palace, mounted his horse and departed with her for Hwaseong Fortress, where they would stay for four days. The primary reasons for the trip were to celebrate Lady Hyegyeong’s 60th birthday at the fortress and to visit the tomb of Crown Prince Sado, the king’s father, located in its vicinity. Nothing was spared in the preparations. For starters, the royal procession itself stretched for one kilometer. Thus, it covered five percent of the 20-kilometer trip simply by lining up. Still, it took two days for the lumbering procession to reach Suwon, home of the fortress. The Joseon Dynasty had never seen such a sight. It still resonates with many Koreans today as an exemplary display of the 18th century monarch’s filial piety. Jeongjo became the next in line for the throne at the tender age of 11, when Crown Prince Sado died after spending eight days crammed into a wooden rice chest. Sado’s own father, King Yeongjo, ordered the lockup on charges of blasphemy and treason. History suggests that the crown prince was mentally ill and terrorized the palace. There also were rumors that he was victimized by factional strife and a palace plot. The young Jeongjo, now named the son of his dead uncle, spent the next 14 years constantly fearing that palace officials would try to assassinate him. “I am so fearful that it’s like sitting on pins and needles, and my situation is as perilous as eggs piled on top of each other,” he said. Those who raised his suspicions “walk with pounding footsteps, showing no signs of caution or reverence,” he explained. In 1776, following the death of his grandfather, he stood before those people and proclaimed himself to be the son of Crown Prince Sado. The ill-fated crown prince’s tomb lies on Mt. Hwa, some 10 kilometers south of Mt. Paldal, the highest point of Hwaseong Fortress. Befitting the name of Mt. Hwa, which means “flower mountain,” the tomb is lavishly decorated, surrounded by 12 exquisite stones, carved in the shape of lotus buds, and retaining panels. The site, once the location of the Suwon county office, had for hundreds of years been regarded as an auspicious site for royal burials. In 1789, King Jeongjo moved the county office to where it stands today, and moved his father’s tomb from Yangju, north of Hanyang, to Mt. Hwa. He then renamed the tomb Hyeollyungwon, meaning the “garden of prominent rise,” and built a temple nearby to pray for his father’s happiness in the afterlife. And so, 33 years after his death, Lady Hyegyeong was finally able to properly pay her respects to her deceased husband. Recalling Memories of 200 Years PastA grand royal procession was a ceremonial and political event often undertaken by the pre-modern dynasties of Northeast Asia. But King Jeongjo’s procession to Hwaseong Fortress broke the mold. The scale was the biggest since the founding of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392, as was the budget. For the eight-day trip, the palace mobilized 6,000 people and 1,400 horses and allocated 100,000 nyang, equivalent to around seven billion won today (approximately US$ 6.2 million). Some 120 craftsmen gathered to construct the palanquin that carried Lady Hyegyeong in the procession. It cost 2,785 nyang (200 million won), worth two of Korea’s most expensive luxury sedans today. These figures can be quoted nowadays thanks to the meticulous records of the procession kept at the time. One of them is “Record of King Jeongjo’s Procession to the Tomb of Crown Prince Sado in Eulmyo Year” (Wonhaeng eulmyo jeongni uigwe), an eight-volume record of the entire event, including all of the preparatory stages. Sixty-three banchado, illustrations showing all of the participants and their positions in the procession, greatly enrich the record. Kim Hong-do (1745-c. 1806), a famed genre painter and court artist, assembled the most talented artists to produce the artworks. The illustrations, therefore, have supreme documentary and artistic value. Another important record is “Painting of King Jeongjo’s Procession to His Father’s Tomb at Hwaseong” (Hwaseong neunghaeng do), an eight-panel folding screen. It depicts highlights of the procession as well as a detailed picture of the completed fortress, which indicates it was painted a year after the procession. There are some lively, delightful details here and there, such as pictures of soldiers trying to control crowds, groups of young scholars enjoying the scenery, men trying to stop others from fighting, and taffy and rice cake sellers weaving through the crowds. Many people began to think back 200 years to this time when the novel “Eternal Empire” (Yeongwon-han jeguk) by Lee In-hwa was published in 1993. Based on the assumption that the monarch was poisoned to death, the novel was a bestseller and a movie of the same title soon followed. When the Hwaseong Fortress was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, an annotated compilation of the records the king left behind was published and the illustrations of the procession, originally black and white woodblock print pictures, were colored and republished, thus becoming high-end cultural products. These moves all helped reinstate King Jeongjo to his reputation as the reformer monarch who led the Joseon Renaissance. It reawakened Koreans’ long forgotten memories of an admirable king. The procession was not King Jeongjo’s first to pay respects to his father. After relocating his father’s tomb, he visited it every year, so the procession of 1795 was his sixth. The processions served the king’s ulterior motives. Since many soldiers were mobilized for these visits, they became an opportunity to check their state of training and inspect the defense system of the capital. Moreover, the deployment of so many soldiers meant that new roads and bridges would be needed, thus expanding the kingdom’s transportation network. Consequently, the processions reaffirmed the king’s authority and power. Purpose of the FortressHwaseong Fortress was an invincible stronghold built with the latest technology. It constituted a new multipurpose town designed by Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), a scholar advocating the new “practical learning” (Silhak), who had also designed the king’s pontoon bridge. But examination of the design suggests that a military fortification was not all that the king had in mind. Streams were channeled through the town and a new cross-shaped road network was built to facilitate the movement of people and goods. During his four-day stay, the king paid his respects at his father’s tomb, held a special state civil service exam for the selection of regional officials, observed the soldiers’ training day and night, held his mother’s 60th birthday banquet and then another banquet for the elderly people in the local area. In the new fortified town that he had created, he tested everything that he conceived and tried to implement after much agony and deliberation. It was a year since he had started preparations for the royal procession, six years since he had relocated his father’s tomb, and 20 years since he had ascended the throne. With its walls stretching 5.7 kilometers in circumference and standing 4.9 to 6.2 meters high, Hwaseong Fortress was completed in 1796, the year after King Jeongjo’s grand procession to his father’s tomb. Construction of the whole fortification took just two years and six months to finish, its 40-some defense facilities including four beautiful main gates in the north, south, east and west. The western command post stands on the highest part of the fortress at the top of Mt. Paldal; Banghwasuryu Pavilion (whose name means “pavilion for courting flowers and seeking willows”) and Hwahong Gate, one of the smaller gates which surmounts arched sluices, are lovely at any time of the year; and the three observation towers called Gongsimdon, representing a new type of structure made of brick and stones and hollow on the inside, could only be seen here The temporary palace at Hwaseong was damaged during the Japanese colonial period and used at various times as a hospital, school or police station. But the palace was restored to its original state in 2003, and that is what visitors see today. The accurate restoration was possible as King Jeongjo had the entire construction process documented in “Record of the Construction of Hwaseong Fortress” (Hwaseong seongyeok uigwe). Reborn as a World Heritage SiteWhen the UNESCO team visited Suwon in April 1997, a photocopied version of “Record of the Construction of Hwaseong Fortress” found its way into the hands of Nimal de Silva, who was leading the field inspection of the fortress. Already impressed by the architectural diversity of the defense structures of the fortress, he marveled at the vast and exhaustively detailed document. The book is said to have played a decisive role in the decision to bestow World Heritage status to Hwaseong, which had suffered repeated damage and restoration over a period of just two centuries. The UNESCO team’s reaction to the book is in line with the way Koreans today like to think of King Jeongjo. In the records he left behind, his sincerity shines through and sheds light on his thoughts about monarchy and republic, the transition from pre-modern to modern, and the individual and the state. Lee Chang-guy Poet and Literary CriticAhn Hong-beom PhotographerKOREA FOUNDATION
    • Multi-Lang
    • 영어
    2019-09-10

실시간 영어 기사

  • INTERVIEW, The Man Called ‘Nam June Paik’s Hands’
      Lee Jung-sung was running an electronics shop in Seoul in 1988 when he first met Nam June Paik, the father of video art. For nearly two decades thereafter, Lee worked as Paik’s project technician and main collaborator. Lee is still busy these days overseeing the late virtuoso’s legacy, restoring and maintaining his works. ‘Nam June Paik Art Center’ is located in Yong-in City. We can meet his masterpieces anytime. Behind Nam June Paik, the world’s first video artist, there was Lee Jung-sung. Their first collaborative work was a tower of 1,003 TV sets titled “The More the Better” (Dadaikseon, 1988). In the ensuing 18 years, Lee engineered the installation of Paik’s artworks, and as they crisscrossed the globe, Lee morphed into Paik’s closest collaborator and source of ideas. It could be said that Nam June Paik’s brain soared on the wings of Lee Jung-sung’s hands, and Lee Jung-sung’s hands were able to build amazing things because of Nam June Paik’s brain.  Sowing Trust Lim Hee-yun: So how did you meet Nam June Paik? Lee: I have to set the scene first. The household appliances trade show in Korea began in 1986. The Seoul International Trade Fair opened in what is now the COEX Convention Centre in Samseong-dong, and the competition between Samsung and LG was really intense. They were having a battle of ideas, under strictest secrecy, to come up with the most innovative display for the grand opening. The Samsung side commissioned me to install a “TV wall.” I managed to build a wall of 528 TVs in little time, so after that they got me to do all the displays for the major Samsung Electronics stores in Seoul. And then it was 1988. Mr. Paik was asking around for a technician to help build “The More the Better,” and eventually got in touch with me because I was doing that work for Samsung. He asked me, “Can you do me one with 1,003?” And, of course, I said, “Yes, I can do that.” I was thinking, “I did one with 528, just doubling the number shouldn’t mean it can’t be done.” At that point I had no idea about what an important figure Nam June Paik was, or what an embarrassment it would be on the global stage if we couldn’t pull it off. They say, don’t they, that you’re bravest when you know nothing. Lim: Did the work on “The More the Better” go smoothly? Lee: Mr. Paik tasked me with installing the 1,003 TVs and then he went off to America, simply saying, “Do a good job.” At the time, the biggest challenge to installing TVs on such a large scale was how to deal with the video feed. Even in Japan, they only had a device that could distribute video to six TVs simultaneously. And it was 500 dollars apiece, which was a lot of money. So I started making my own from scratch. In the end, the 1,003 TVs worked perfectly by the promised date of the live broadcast. It was the best feeling ever. I think Mr. Paik was really surprised, too. Later on, when he came back to Korea, he admitted to me, “To be honest, I thought if even half of them worked, it would be a big achievement.” Then he asked, “I have to make another work in New York. Could you do it?” And I responded, “Sure, yeah, why not?” The work was “Fin de Siecle II,” which was installed at the Whitney Museum in 1989. After that one, Mr. Paik sent me to Switzerland where I couldn’t even speak the language. I had to install 80 TVs in a week, and because of my massive bag full of TV parts and tools, I was stopped by customs at Zurich Airport. I wrangled with the customs officer, speaking in Korean and making signs with my hands and feet. I managed to persuade the gallery to extend the time I was able to work until after closing. I finished the work in less than five days and was able to go off and do some sightseeing. That was when Mr. Paik really came to believe in my grit and adaptability. Exchange of Ideas Lim: You started out as a technician. How were you able to understand the creative world of Nam June Paik when even people in the art world at the time weren’t able to keep up with him? Lee: I’ll turn that question around. Do you understand Picasso’s paintings? There’s no right answer when it comes to appreciating works of art. There’s nothing to wonder about with why people like a certain artwork either. You just need to feel for yourself, “That’s fun,” or “That looks good.” At the beginning, I also just passively made whatever Mr. Paik instructed me to make. But from some point or other, I started candidly proposing my ideas, too. If I were to say, “I think it would be good if we add something like this, what do you think?” he’d respond with, “Hey, buster, you should have said so from the beginning.” And then I realized, “Ah, if I suggest my ideas in advance, he really would take them on.” Yes, he would readily take on the advice I gave in consideration of the environment of the exhibition space and technological limitations. Lim: Is there a lot involved to maintain Nam June Paik’s works? And what work do you do now aside from that? Lee: Not long ago, I worked on restoring the work “108 Agonies” (1998) in Gyeongju. It was so damaged that it took me a whole week, and I also did some work on “Fractal Turtleship” (1993) at the Daejeon Museum of Art. Recently, I went over to the Whitney Museum in New York to help with the conservation of “Fin de Siecle II.” Aside from that, I give advice to young budding artists, and I occasionally give lectures, too. This autumn, there’s a big Nam June Paik retrospective in Nanjing, China, and I think I’ll have to work on that one, too. I also have to keep pouring my heart and soul into the organization of his archive. Preservation and Restoration  Lim: Now the era of YouTube is in full swing. How do you look back on Nam June Paik’s art in this day and age?  Lee: He went around piling up debts to create innovative artworks, but with today’s technology he would have made loads of really unusual works. In his later years, he stopped doing video art and tried to go into laser art, but the overheads were just so high. He was just about able to use military-grade lasers. If lasers and LED had been in use when Mr. Paik was doing his work, we probably would have gotten to discover another Nam June Paik, entirely different from the one we know. Lim: Do you still sometimes think of the days when you were working with Nam June Paik? Lee: Of course. I was nothing but a technician, but since I worked with Mr. Paik on his artworks, I got to travel the world and wanted for nothing. To tell you the truth, even now, once or twice a month, I meet him in my dreams and we work together. It’s completely new work. In the dreams, we never work again on the works we made in the past. Maybe his insistence on always going after what’s new is still alive.   Lim Hee-yun, KOREA FOUNDATION
    • Local-East
    • 용인
    2019-10-02
  • ‘Teen Suicide’ Understanding the Risk and Getting Help
          Teenagers have their whole lives ahead of them, they’re often told. The idea that a teen could be thinking about ending that life might be hard for their friends, families, or other people in their community to believe. But the risk of suicide should be on the radar of anyone who interacts with teens, says Dr. Jane Pearson, a mental health expert at NIH. The rate of teen suicide has increased over the last decade. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death for teens and young adults in the United States. Experts don’t know why this rate has been rising. But NIH-funded researchers are working on better ways to find and help teens who are thinking of suicide. “There are some very effective treatments for youth who are suicidal,” Pearson explains. “We’re trying to figure out how to make those treatments more accessible for more youth.”   Who’s at Risk? Many things can increase the risk of suicide in teenagers. One major risk factor is experiencing a mental health issue like depression, anxiety, or trauma. Most people who die by suicide have struggled with a mental health condition. Other risk factors include a family history of suicide, violence, or substance abuse. Teens also experience many stressful life events for the first time. These can include a breakup with a romantic partner, trouble at school, violence, or conflicts with friends. “Teens don’t have the life experience to know that these things will be temporary, that they’ll get through it,” Pearson says. And they might think they’d rather be dead than feel the way they do at that moment in time, she adds. Persistent misunderstandings about suicide can also keep teens from getting the help they need, adds Pearson. “Many people think that a teen talking about or attempting suicide are so-called gestures, or cries for attention,” Pearson explains. They don’t think that the teen is in real danger. “That’s definitely a myth,” says Dr. Cheryl King, a suicide-prevention researcher at the University of Michigan. “If someone has been repeatedly suicidal or talking about it for a long time, that should have us more concerned rather than less concerned.”   Knowing When Teens Need Help Some of the warning signs that a teen is thinking about suicide are talking about wanting to die, feeling hopeless, or being trapped or in unbearable pain (see the Wise Choices box for more signs). If you are concerned about a teen who may be thinking about suicide, start a conversation, says Dr. Joan Asarnow, a suicide-prevention researcher and clinical psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “A conversation can just start with ‘are you OK?’ or ‘is there something that feels like it’s too big of a problem?’” Asarnow explains. Pearson recommends that people start these conversations early, when they first start to feel that something’s wrong with a teen. “It’s going to be easier to help somebody before they’ve really decided on a course of action to kill themselves,” she says. But many teens have suicidal thoughts that go unrecognized. King and other NIH-funded researchers are studying ways to better identify teens at risk of suicide. King is testing a new method to screen teens who come into hospital emergency rooms for suicide risk. While most teens don’t see a mental health specialist, she says, “roughly 1 in 5 goes to the emergency department at least once a year. So, it’s a particularly good place for suicide-risk screening.” This is especially true because risk-taking behaviors such as substance abuse and dangerous driving can land teens in the emergency room, King explains. And teens who engage in such behaviors are at higher risk of suicide. Other researchers are looking at ways to use technology to identify when teens already known to be at risk of suicide are most vulnerable. For example, one team is testing whether smartwatches can detect when teens’ emotions are affecting their body before the teens themselves feel distressed. “New technologies may provide us with a way to intervene at the moment where the kids really need it, without depending on them to reach out on their own,” Asarnow explains.   Keeping Teens Safe Treatments are available that can help teens at risk of suicide. “Underlying mental health issues like depression and trauma are treatable conditions, and there are ways we can help youths with these troubles once we know about them,” says King. Talk therapy and medications can both be effective for many people. NIH-funded researchers have also developed therapies that can help very high-risk teens—those who have already attempted suicide, sometimes more than once. Asarnow and her colleagues recently showed that types of intensive counseling for teens and their families can reduce the risk of another suicide attempt by about a third. This counseling, based on treatments called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), teaches coping strategies and life skills. Involving the family in suicide prevention seems to be more effective than just treating the teen, Asarnow says. Her program counsels and teaches parents as well as the teens in their care. One thing any family can do to help protect a teen thinking of suicide is to talk with a health care provider about putting together a safety plan, she adds. A safety plan is a document the teen and trusted adults create together. It includes coping strategies and contact information for people who have agreed to help in times of crisis. A safety plan also includes commitments from the family to keeping the teen’s environment safe, such as limiting access to medications and firearms. The decision to harm oneself is often made in a split second. A safety plan “makes the best decisions the easy things to do,” Pearson explains. “The family wants that, and the teen wants that.” If you or someone you know is thinking about suicide, you can call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK. You can also text “HOME” to the Crisis Text Line at 741741. Experts recommend both parents and teens store these numbers in their smartphones. NIH, USA
    • Multi-Lang
    • 영어
    2019-09-27
  • Following King Jeong jo to his ‘Brilliant Fortress’
        Hwaseong Fortress, the epitome of late Joseon Dynasty architecture, surrounds the traditional city center of Suwon. Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997, the fortress was carefully thought out and meticulously designed to reflect the thoughts and ideals of King Jeongjo, the 22nd ruler of Joseon, who also had the entire construction process precisely documented. In the spring of 1795, Hanyang, the capital of the Joseon Dynasty and today’s Seoul, overflowed with visitors from all over the country. Suspension of the night curfew and temporary tents could not resolve the overwhelming demand for accommodations. But shopkeepers celebrated the unexpected surge of customers. The visitors had all come for one reason: to catch a sight of the king’s procession. Posters put up throughout the country announced the king’s impending travel, informing commoners when they could see him at close range. In those days, the king was likened to a sun god. Seeing the king was compared to being awash in a celestial light. Those who traveled from afar to catch a glimpse were called gwangwang minin, meaning “the people who came to see the light.” Today the word gwangwangmeans “tourism.” The King’s Filial PietyAt around seven in the morning on the ninth day of the second month of 1795, King Jeongjo formally greeted his mother, Lady Hyegyeong, at the front gate of Changdeok Palace, mounted his horse and departed with her for Hwaseong Fortress, where they would stay for four days. The primary reasons for the trip were to celebrate Lady Hyegyeong’s 60th birthday at the fortress and to visit the tomb of Crown Prince Sado, the king’s father, located in its vicinity. Nothing was spared in the preparations. For starters, the royal procession itself stretched for one kilometer. Thus, it covered five percent of the 20-kilometer trip simply by lining up. Still, it took two days for the lumbering procession to reach Suwon, home of the fortress. The Joseon Dynasty had never seen such a sight. It still resonates with many Koreans today as an exemplary display of the 18th century monarch’s filial piety. Jeongjo became the next in line for the throne at the tender age of 11, when Crown Prince Sado died after spending eight days crammed into a wooden rice chest. Sado’s own father, King Yeongjo, ordered the lockup on charges of blasphemy and treason. History suggests that the crown prince was mentally ill and terrorized the palace. There also were rumors that he was victimized by factional strife and a palace plot. The young Jeongjo, now named the son of his dead uncle, spent the next 14 years constantly fearing that palace officials would try to assassinate him. “I am so fearful that it’s like sitting on pins and needles, and my situation is as perilous as eggs piled on top of each other,” he said. Those who raised his suspicions “walk with pounding footsteps, showing no signs of caution or reverence,” he explained. In 1776, following the death of his grandfather, he stood before those people and proclaimed himself to be the son of Crown Prince Sado. The ill-fated crown prince’s tomb lies on Mt. Hwa, some 10 kilometers south of Mt. Paldal, the highest point of Hwaseong Fortress. Befitting the name of Mt. Hwa, which means “flower mountain,” the tomb is lavishly decorated, surrounded by 12 exquisite stones, carved in the shape of lotus buds, and retaining panels. The site, once the location of the Suwon county office, had for hundreds of years been regarded as an auspicious site for royal burials. In 1789, King Jeongjo moved the county office to where it stands today, and moved his father’s tomb from Yangju, north of Hanyang, to Mt. Hwa. He then renamed the tomb Hyeollyungwon, meaning the “garden of prominent rise,” and built a temple nearby to pray for his father’s happiness in the afterlife. And so, 33 years after his death, Lady Hyegyeong was finally able to properly pay her respects to her deceased husband. Recalling Memories of 200 Years PastA grand royal procession was a ceremonial and political event often undertaken by the pre-modern dynasties of Northeast Asia. But King Jeongjo’s procession to Hwaseong Fortress broke the mold. The scale was the biggest since the founding of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392, as was the budget. For the eight-day trip, the palace mobilized 6,000 people and 1,400 horses and allocated 100,000 nyang, equivalent to around seven billion won today (approximately US$ 6.2 million). Some 120 craftsmen gathered to construct the palanquin that carried Lady Hyegyeong in the procession. It cost 2,785 nyang (200 million won), worth two of Korea’s most expensive luxury sedans today. These figures can be quoted nowadays thanks to the meticulous records of the procession kept at the time. One of them is “Record of King Jeongjo’s Procession to the Tomb of Crown Prince Sado in Eulmyo Year” (Wonhaeng eulmyo jeongni uigwe), an eight-volume record of the entire event, including all of the preparatory stages. Sixty-three banchado, illustrations showing all of the participants and their positions in the procession, greatly enrich the record. Kim Hong-do (1745-c. 1806), a famed genre painter and court artist, assembled the most talented artists to produce the artworks. The illustrations, therefore, have supreme documentary and artistic value. Another important record is “Painting of King Jeongjo’s Procession to His Father’s Tomb at Hwaseong” (Hwaseong neunghaeng do), an eight-panel folding screen. It depicts highlights of the procession as well as a detailed picture of the completed fortress, which indicates it was painted a year after the procession. There are some lively, delightful details here and there, such as pictures of soldiers trying to control crowds, groups of young scholars enjoying the scenery, men trying to stop others from fighting, and taffy and rice cake sellers weaving through the crowds. Many people began to think back 200 years to this time when the novel “Eternal Empire” (Yeongwon-han jeguk) by Lee In-hwa was published in 1993. Based on the assumption that the monarch was poisoned to death, the novel was a bestseller and a movie of the same title soon followed. When the Hwaseong Fortress was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, an annotated compilation of the records the king left behind was published and the illustrations of the procession, originally black and white woodblock print pictures, were colored and republished, thus becoming high-end cultural products. These moves all helped reinstate King Jeongjo to his reputation as the reformer monarch who led the Joseon Renaissance. It reawakened Koreans’ long forgotten memories of an admirable king. The procession was not King Jeongjo’s first to pay respects to his father. After relocating his father’s tomb, he visited it every year, so the procession of 1795 was his sixth. The processions served the king’s ulterior motives. Since many soldiers were mobilized for these visits, they became an opportunity to check their state of training and inspect the defense system of the capital. Moreover, the deployment of so many soldiers meant that new roads and bridges would be needed, thus expanding the kingdom’s transportation network. Consequently, the processions reaffirmed the king’s authority and power. Purpose of the FortressHwaseong Fortress was an invincible stronghold built with the latest technology. It constituted a new multipurpose town designed by Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), a scholar advocating the new “practical learning” (Silhak), who had also designed the king’s pontoon bridge. But examination of the design suggests that a military fortification was not all that the king had in mind. Streams were channeled through the town and a new cross-shaped road network was built to facilitate the movement of people and goods. During his four-day stay, the king paid his respects at his father’s tomb, held a special state civil service exam for the selection of regional officials, observed the soldiers’ training day and night, held his mother’s 60th birthday banquet and then another banquet for the elderly people in the local area. In the new fortified town that he had created, he tested everything that he conceived and tried to implement after much agony and deliberation. It was a year since he had started preparations for the royal procession, six years since he had relocated his father’s tomb, and 20 years since he had ascended the throne. With its walls stretching 5.7 kilometers in circumference and standing 4.9 to 6.2 meters high, Hwaseong Fortress was completed in 1796, the year after King Jeongjo’s grand procession to his father’s tomb. Construction of the whole fortification took just two years and six months to finish, its 40-some defense facilities including four beautiful main gates in the north, south, east and west. The western command post stands on the highest part of the fortress at the top of Mt. Paldal; Banghwasuryu Pavilion (whose name means “pavilion for courting flowers and seeking willows”) and Hwahong Gate, one of the smaller gates which surmounts arched sluices, are lovely at any time of the year; and the three observation towers called Gongsimdon, representing a new type of structure made of brick and stones and hollow on the inside, could only be seen here The temporary palace at Hwaseong was damaged during the Japanese colonial period and used at various times as a hospital, school or police station. But the palace was restored to its original state in 2003, and that is what visitors see today. The accurate restoration was possible as King Jeongjo had the entire construction process documented in “Record of the Construction of Hwaseong Fortress” (Hwaseong seongyeok uigwe). Reborn as a World Heritage SiteWhen the UNESCO team visited Suwon in April 1997, a photocopied version of “Record of the Construction of Hwaseong Fortress” found its way into the hands of Nimal de Silva, who was leading the field inspection of the fortress. Already impressed by the architectural diversity of the defense structures of the fortress, he marveled at the vast and exhaustively detailed document. The book is said to have played a decisive role in the decision to bestow World Heritage status to Hwaseong, which had suffered repeated damage and restoration over a period of just two centuries. The UNESCO team’s reaction to the book is in line with the way Koreans today like to think of King Jeongjo. In the records he left behind, his sincerity shines through and sheds light on his thoughts about monarchy and republic, the transition from pre-modern to modern, and the individual and the state. Lee Chang-guy Poet and Literary CriticAhn Hong-beom PhotographerKOREA FOUNDATION
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    2019-09-10
  • 다문화가족을 위한 한국의 전통문화 ‘옷, 음식, 집, 음악’
      Traditional Korean ClothesHanbok is the traditional attire of the Korean people. Worn daily up until just 100 years ago, hanbok comes in various shapes and colors, reflecting the culture and lifestyle of the its time. Nowadays, it is only worn on special occasions or anniversaries. It is a formal wear and many Koreans keep a hanbok for such occasions. While the traditional hanbok was beautiful in its own right, the design has changed slowly but surely over the generations. The core of hanbok is its graceful shape and vibrant colors, which have had a major impact on the modern fashion industry. It is hard to think of hanbok as everyday wear but it is slowly being revolutionized through the changing of fabrics, colors and features, reflecting the latest trend. Many aspiring hanbok designers have altered hanbok for everyday wear with traditional elements at the base of the garment but having a distinct modern feel. Features of HanbokThe unique lines of hanbok appear at their greatest when the wearer is in motion. Hanbok is creative and expressive in its design. Another special feature about hanbok is the shape, having a slim top and wide bottom, similar to a bell. The jacket should be tight and fitted while the skirt is. The tightly fitting jacket attractively reflects the shape of the upper body. The wide and flexible skirt flatter the wearer’s gracefulness by hiding the movements of the lower body, so the wearer appears to be floating on air. Hanbok fabric is colored using natural dyes. The colors of nature are imbued in the cloth, giving hanbok a depth and richness not found from artificial dyes. A full set of hanbok for men consists of a vest, jeogori (top jacket), and a pair of pants while women's include a jeogori, undershirt, skirt, and a pair of pantaloons. Traditional Korean FoodHansik refers to traditional Korean food, centered on rice, served alongside a bowl of soup and a variety of side dishes. Most foods use meat and vegetables as the main ingredients, and are boiled or steamed in brine or water rather than fried in oil, making hansik very healthy. More than anything else, hansik's most outstanding feature is the amount of fermented foods. The most well-known are kimchi (fermented cabbage), ganjang (soy sauce), doenjang (soybean paste), and gochujang (Korean chili paste).Popular dishes among international visitors include bulgogi, bibimbap, and hanjeongsik (Korean table d'hote). Bulgogi is a marinated beef or sometimes pork dish that is sweet and tender in texture. In particular, the soy sauce seasoning is not spicy, thus making it a great introductory dish to hansik. Bibimbap, on the other hand, is a complete meal in and of itself. It is made by mixing rice with all kinds of vegetables and then topped with gochujang for that extra kick. Hanjeongsik is served as a full table's worth of side dishes featuring meat and vegetables along with soups, steamed foods, and hot pots. This is a popular choice for visitors looking to try a little bit of everything. Traditional Korean HousesHanok refers to houses built in the traditional Korean style. While tile-roofed and thatch-roofed hanoks were equally common, the former were typically noblemen residences while the latter were mostly houses of the commoners in the past. These days, most traditional hanok that are still used for housing have modern facilities installed within.There are two main charms to hanoks. The first is the unique heating system of ondol. A layer of stone is laid down below the flooring and when heated, the heat spreads up into every room of the house, keeping both the floor and the air surprisingly warm in winter. The use of ondol has influenced the Korean culture to a lifestyle of sitting on the floor, even in modern times. Because the floor is used for eating, sleeping, and general leisure time, people take off their shoes when entering a Korean home. This custom started with hanok and the ondol system.The second attractive point to hanok houses is that they are environmentally friendly. The materials needed to build a hanok house are free from chemicals, making it a healthy environment. The pillars, rafters, doors, window frames, and floor are wooden, while the walls are a mixture of straw and dirt. The paper to cover the frames of doors and windows was made from tree pulp. As the building materials used are all natural, hanok houses have excellent breathability, perfect for escaping the summer heat. Traditional Korean MusicKoreans have the unique characteristic of lyrical sensibility, using music to express their emotions. Traditional Korean music can be divided into music listened to by the royal family and by the commoners, each differing greatly in style. Jongmyo Jeryeak, royal ancestral ritual music, the representative royal court music played during ancestral rites, was solumn and splendid. In contrast, the commoners who wished to overcome the difficulties of the working class usually sang folk songs and pansori, a traditional Korean music that narrates a themed story. With a distinct, inimitable sound, rhythm, and singing technique, pansori was designated as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by the UNESCO. Traditional Korean music has also greatly influenced Korean pop music. Recently, there is a growing trend of fusion art troupes where traditional Korean music is combined with contemporary elements. Performances such as "Nanta" and "Gugak B-boy" were created through the mix of traditional Korean rhythms and rock music. Such fusion music has since been receiving attention both locally and abroad, showcasing Korea's important cultural code to the world.KOREA TOURISM ORGANIZATION      
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    2019-09-07
  • Where do you find all-day childcare centers that open until after 6 PM?
    Among multicultural families, some need to leave their children at childcare centers until after 6 PM, especially when both of the parents are working. However, it is not easy to find childcare centers that open until later.                     For this reason, Ministry of Health and Welfare is operating a system connecting the parents who need to leave their children at childcare centers until later and childcare centers that operate all-day classes until after 6 PM.                   On the portal "i-sarang" (www.childcare.go.kr), you can check the information voluntarily registered by 9,723 childcare centers all over the country.           It turned out that 3,147 childcare centers run more than 2 all-day classes until after 6 PM.            Therefore, parents can find the childcare centers that meet their needs by looking up comprehensive information on the centers, including the waiting list status, information notification, and evaluation and certification, along with information on all-day classes after 6 PM.                         Especially, if you are looking for childcare centers that run for longer hours, you can check on portals such as "i-sarang" and "Bokjiro" for information on childcare classes that operate until after 6 PM, including classroom composition (number of children by age and number of nursing teachers), program, and shuttle bus information before asking for an entrance counseling.                             As for childcare centers, the centers can register and edit information regarding children recruitment and the status of all-day classes. Even for the childcare centers that do not disclose information on all-day classes, if there are children who stay at the centers after 6 PM, they should provide the same nursing program as before 6 PM.                                An officer from Ministry of Health and Welfare said, "We expect it to be easier for multicultural families and dual-income parents to find childcare centers that suit their needs and for the childcare centers that have all-day classes to be able to recruit children more actively. For more stable operation of all-day classes and to relieve the burden of teachers, we are planning to send assistant teacher for the childcare centers that operate all-day classes of a certain size from March, in an exemplary manner."                                        
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    2019-09-07
  • Period Problems ‘Fibroids, Endometriosis, and Other Issues’
      Getting your period is a fact of life for most women. But every woman’s period is different. So how do you know if yours is causing problems that it shouldn’t? Many girls and women get cramps, low back pain, fatigue, or discomfort with their periods. But some have pain so bad they miss days of work or school every month. Others experience such heavy bleeding that it exhausts them. These are things that may signal a bigger issue. But some women find talking about menstrual issues embarrassing. “Women tend not to talk about pelvic pain or bleeding,” says Dr. Lisa Halvorson, a women’s health expert at NIH. “But the menstrual cycle is a critical part of your health.”You can’t know about your treatment options unless you talk with your doctor. Common IssuesMost women’s menstrual cycles range between 21 to 35 days, or up to 45 days for teens. Bleeding usually lasts between three to seven days. It’s important for women to get to know their own pattern. What’s normal for one woman may not be for another.The most common menstrual irregularities are not getting your period at all or not getting it regularly, getting it for too many or too few days, or having severely painful cramps.These issues can be caused by many different things, including scarring, hormonal imbalances, certain diseases or conditions, and even some medications.Two of the most common disorders that cause period problems are uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Fibroids are tumors, or growths, made of muscle cells and other types of cells that grow inside or outside of the wall of the uterus, or womb.Studies estimate that more than 70% of women in the U.S. have at least one fibroid during their lives. But most women who have them don’t have symptoms.Endometriosis is caused by tissue normally found in the uterus growing outside it on other organs. Many women with endometriosis never have any symptoms. But some have life-altering ones. “Endometriosis probably accounts for at least a third of infertility in women,” Halvorson explains.Fibroids, endometriosis, and other menstrual issues can cause a range of symptoms (see the Wise Choices box). Your doctor can help you figure out what’s causing the symptoms.Very heavy bleeding during a woman’s period is the most common symptom of fibroids. Severe pain that gets worse around the time of a woman’s period is the most common symptom of endometriosis. Both fibroids and endometriosis can run in families, explains Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy, an NIH-funded gynecologist at the University of Illinois. Because of this, women may not know that severe pain or heavy bleeding aren’t normal.“The culture in a family could be, ‘you just have to put up with it, it’s part of being a woman,’” he explains. “But there are treatments available that can improve your health and your quality of life.” Finding the CauseIt can be hard for doctors to tell menstrual problems apart. Blood tests can help detect hormonal changes. An imaging test called an ultrasound is very good at picking up fibroids.But diagnosing endometriosis “is particularly tough,” says Dr. Stacey Missmer, an NIH-funded researcher at Michigan State University. It’s hard to see on imaging tests. No blood tests currently exist that can pick it up. The only way to know that a woman has it for sure is by a surgery in which a doctor looks through a small incision made in the abdomen. This can lead to a long delay in diagnosis, “in part because no one wants to be quick to do surgery,” Missmer says. Sometimes, if endometriosis is suspected, doctors will prescribe medications first to see if they provide some relief. Current TreatmentsMany drugs used for fibroids, endometriosis, and other disorders that affect the menstrual cycle work by altering certain hormones. Birth control pills and other drugs can block these hormones.Such treatments may work well for many women, Halvorson explains. “But they can also prevent a woman from getting pregnant,” she says. This can limit how long some women want to use them. Researchers have developed approaches to treat fibroids that don’t involve major surgery. These often work well. But sometimes, fibroids can come back.Some women with endometriosis get pain relief from surgery to remove the tissue that’s stuck to other organs. However, other women still have pain after this type of surgery.For women who don’t get relief from drugs or less invasive procedures, a hysterectomy may be an option. This is surgery to remove the uterus and sometimes the ovaries. Women who undergo this surgery can no longer get pregnant. Hysterectomy used to be much more widely used than it is now, says Al-Hendy. “But we have alternatives for hysterectomy now. So we tend to use it only when other options haven’t worked,” he explains. However, it doesn’t cure chronic pelvic pain for everyone. Looking for Better OptionsNIH-funded researchers continue to look into new ways to detect, treat, and prevent period problems.“We need better, noninvasive ways to diagnose endometriosis,” Halvorson says.Missmer is researching ways to create a test for endometriosis. “Many scientists are now exploring using blood, urine, and saliva,” she explains. “We’re looking for a signal that can determine whether a woman has endometriosis without having to do surgery.” For both fibroids and endometriosis, “we need nonhormonal treatments,” Halvorson says. These treatments are badly needed, she explains, because “some women can’t tolerate the side effects of hormonal treatments.” And hormonal treatments don’t work for women who want to get pregnant. Al-Hendy is studying potential new fibroid treatments. His lab has found evidence that lack of vitamin D may play a role in fibroid growth. His team is now developing new drugs based on vitamin D and plans to test them to see if they can shrink fibroids. Researchers also hope that by understanding the processes in the body that drive period problems, “we can eventually intervene early and prevent them,” Al-Hendy explains.For now, he adds, there’s a lot to gain from women being aware of how common these disorders are, and of the options already available to treat them. Missmer stresses the importance of speaking up. “If you were having pain every time you moved your elbow, you wouldn’t hesitate to go to the doctor and discuss it. So, there’s no reason why, if you’re having pain every time you have your period, that shouldn’t be discussed,” she says.NIH, USA
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    2019-08-19
  • Community Immunity ‘How Vaccines Protect Us All’
      Parents know that kids are vulnerable to a host of infectious diseases. Research supported by NIH and others proves that the benefits of vaccines in preventing illness and death greatly outweigh the risks. The list of childhood diseases can be overwhelming: measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, meningitis, influenza and rotavirus. In the era before vaccines, many children in the U.S. died or became disabled from these diseases. Many still do in countries and regions with lower vaccination rates. With all the international travel in the world these days, it’s important to keep vaccines, or immunizations, up to date. Here’s just one example of what might happen if you don’t. By 2000, immunization had practically wiped out measles in the U.S. But a measles outbreak in 2005 was traced to one unvaccinated U.S. resident infected during a visit to Europe. The returning traveler infected American children who hadn’t been vaccinated because of safety concerns?despite study after study showing that childhood vaccines are safe and effective. A major epidemic didn’t emerge that time. That’s because enough people in the surrounding communities had already been vaccinated against measles. “The important concept,” says Dr. Marc Lipsitch of the Harvard School of Public Health, “is that vaccinating people protects not only them, but others in the community. If I’m protected, I can protect others.” This type of protection is known as “community immunity” or “herd immunity.”  When enough of the community is immunized against a contagious disease, most other members are protected from infection because there’s little opportunity for the disease to spread.Newborns, pregnant women or people whose immune systems are weakened may not be eligible for certain vaccines. Yet even they will get some protection because the spread of contagious disease is contained. “Epidemiologists think of infections as chain reactions, whose speed depends on contagiousness,” says Lipsitch. “The more contagious the disease, the more vaccination is required. The data tells us that herd immunity works.” Using mathematical formulas and computer programs, NIH-funded scientists like Lipsitch have developed models to determine what proportion of the population has to be vaccinated to eliminate the spread of disease. As one example, a worldwide vaccination campaign completely eliminated, or eradicated, smallpox in the 1970s. So many people were immunized that the virus couldn’t sustain itself. More recently, infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, which can cause meningitis) lowered the risk of disease in the whole population. Before the vaccine, Hib struck about 1 in 200 children younger than age 5. It killed many and often left survivors with permanent brain damage. After the Hib vaccine was introduced in the mid-1980s, the incidence of Hib dropped by 99%. “Infectious disease eradication is possible,” says Lipsitch. Even when a disease?such as measles or Hib? hasn’t been completely wiped out, immunizations can reduce disease transmission, so that epidemics become less frequent. When parents choose to immunize, they’re helping more than their own. Make sure your child’s immunizations are up to date. And talk with your child’s doctor if you have any concerns about vaccine safety.NIH, USA
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    2019-08-06
  • Request to desire the solution of historical issues between Japan and South Korea(ROK) and the security for life-safety of residents who live as social minorities in both countries, as well as people whose origin are of Japan and Korean Peninsula.
       Guri History Club is a group of citizens based in the City of Guri, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. Our group aims to realize a society where Koreans and Japanese can live in peace and harmony through studying the history of Korea and Japan. It was founded by those who are from Japan, with the participation of Korean friends. We have been studying the history of aggression and colonization of Korea by Japan after the Meiji Restoration in the 19th century to pursue ways to avoid ever repeating similar 'mistakes' and establish long-lasting friendship between the two countries. However, unsubstantiated nationalist discourse has gradually gained popularity and the history has been repeatedly distorted in Japan in recent years. These phenomena have been further exacerbated under the Government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. We, wish for friendly relations between Korea and Japan. Yet what is happening in Japan is totally opposite to our wish. The Government of Japan has decided to impose tighter restrictions on exports of essential chemicals for the semi-conductor industry, as de facto retaliation to a recent decision of the Korean Supreme Court to award damages to former Korean laborers against Japanese companies for forced labor during the Second World War. In response, campaigns to boycott Japanese products and cancel travels to Japan are spreading in Korea. We are deeply concerned about the decision of the Japanese Government, since it gives unreasonable impacts on children in both countries, especially pupils and students of Korean origin in Japan and their Japanese equivalents in Korea. Guri History Club, protest against the Japanese Government for its decision to impose tighter export restrictions and demand that it sincerely face the history of aggression and colonization and endeavor to found friendly relations with Korea. Besides, we call on the national and local governments, as well as civil societies, in Japan and Korea to take any necessary measures to protect the human rights of ethnic minorities, specially children, in both countries, and to ensure them life free of fear or difficulty, regardless of political, economic and other relations between the countries. We would kindly request individuals and organizations that would agree on the present statement to participate in the signature-collecting campaign. It would be appreciated if you would notify us of your intention by 8 July 2019. The present statement (originally written in Japanese) will be translated into Korean, and then posted and disseminated on social networks in both languages.     Akio Miyauchi (Guri-rekishi-club)   Guri-History-club        
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    2019-07-25
  • 1. 가계소득과 세금 Pendapatan Keluarga dan Pajak
      가. 가계 소득Pendapatan rumah tangga ▶가계Rumah Tangga 가계는 경제생활 단위로서의 가정 또는 가족을 지칭하는 개념입니다. 예를 들어, 친구들끼리 소득을 공유하며 함께 사는 경우와, 떨어져 살고 있는 부모님의 소득에 의존하여 경제생활을 하는 경우 모두 가계라 할 수 있습니다. 이렇듯, 가계는 자원 및 가치관을 공유하고 있는 가족원들이 하나의 소비자 단위로써 자원을 획득·배분·소비하는 과정을 행하는 경제주체가 됩니다. 즉, 경제적인 측면에서의 의사 결정의 주체는 구성원 개개인이 아닌 가계가 됩니다. Rumah tangga adalah sebuah konsep yang mengacu pada rumah tangga atau keluarga sebagai unit kehidupan ekonomi. Sebagai contoh, pendapatan yang dipakai bersama di antara temanteman yang hidup bersama, atau bila masih bersandar secara ekonomi kepada orang tua sekalipun hidup terpisah, semua itu dapat dikatakan sebagai rumah tangga. Demikianlah, rumah tangga yang berbagi sumber daya dan nilai-nilai merupakan satuan unit konsumen yang bertindak sebagai subyek kegiatan ekonomi, yakni dalam proses memperoleh sumber daya, berbagi, dan kemudian mengkonsumsinya. Dengan kata lain, subyek yang menjadi pengambil keputusan dalam tindakan ekonomi adalah rumah tangga bukan individu. ▶ 가계의 소득Pendapatan Rumah Tangga가계의 소득은 가계구성원이 소유하고 있는 생산요소(노동력·자본·토지 등)를 공급한 대가로 창출됩니다. 소득은 크게 ①근로소득, ②재산소득, ③사업소득, ④이전소득으로 나눠집니다. ①근로소득 : 가계구성원이 노동력을 제공한 대가로 얻는 소득입니다. 정기적으로 받는 월급뿐만 아니라 비정기적인 급여 및 아르바이트로 받는 시급, 일당 등도 포함됩니다. ②재산소득 : 가계가 소유한 금전적 재산 및 토지 같은 실물자산 등을 제공하고 얻는 대가입니다. 금융기관에 저축하고 받는 이자, 토지나 집을 빌려주고 받는 부동산 임대소득, 주식 보유로 나오는 배당금, 자산의 가치상승으로 얻게 되는 차익 등이 이에 해당합니다. ③사업소득 : 사업이란 영리를 목적으로 자본과 노동력을 결합하여 생산 활동을 하는 것을 말합니다. 이를 통해 발생하는 소득을 사업소득이라 할 수 있습니다. ④이전소득 : 사회보장급여(기초생계비, 사회보험금 등)?상속?증여와 같이 정부 또는 기업, 개인이 대가없이 무상으로 지급하는 소득을 말합니다. Penghasilan rumah tangga diperoleh dengan cara pertukaran faktor-faktor produksi yang dimiliki oleh rumah tangga (tenaga kerja, modal, tanah, dll). Pendapatan secara garis besar dibagi menjadi 4 yaitu, ①Pendapatan kerja, ②Pendapatan properti, ③Pendapatan usaha, ④Pendapatan pemindahan. ①Pendapatan kerja : adalah pendapatan yang diterima dari penyediaan tenaga kerja yang ditawarkan oleh rumah tangga. Pendapatan kerja bukan hanya gaji permanen yang didapatkan pekerja tetap saja, tetapi juga termasuk upah maupun honor harian atau per-jam yang diterima oleh pekerja tidak tetap maupun magang. ②Pendapatan properti : adalah pendapatan yang didapatkan dari penawaran harta fisik seperti properti atau tanah yang memiliki nilai tertentu milik rumah tangga. Contoh dari pendapatan properti antara lain : bunga dari hasil penyimpanan di lembaga keuangan, pendapatan dari hasil sewa properti berupa rumah atau tanah, deviden yang berasal dari kepemilikan saham, dan keuntungan yang diperoleh dari pertambahan nilai suatu properti. ③Pendapatan usaha : Usaha adalah kegiatan produksi yang merupakan penggabungan dari modal dan tenaga kerja dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh keuntungan. Dengan demikian, pendapatan yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan usaha disebut sebagai pendapatan usaha. ④Pendapatan pemindahan : adalah pendapatan yang dibayarkan secara cuma-cuma tanpa imbalan oleh pemerintah, perusahaan ataupun pribadi, seperti pemberian jaminan sosial (biaya hidup terendah, uang asuransi masyarakat dan sebagainya), harta warisan, hibah dan sebagainya. 나. 세금제도Sistem Pajak가계는 구성원들과 충분히 의사소통하여 가계 전체의 목표를 설정하고 그에 따른 경제활동을 해야 합니다. 세금은 국가를 유지하고 발전시키는 기초재원이 됩니다. 정부는 공공서비스 제공에 필요한 재원을 수혜자인 국민들이 내는 세금으로 마련합니다. 대한민국 헌법은 납세(세금 납부)를 국방, 근로, 교육과 함께 ‘국민의 4대 의무’로 정하고 있습니다. 그리고 국회는, ①가계가 부담하는 세금이 공정하게 부과될 수 있도록 관련 법률(‘세법’)을 결정하고, ②세금을 기반으로 하는 정부 재정이 투명하게 운영되도록 정부 예산안을 승인합니다. 결국, 국민들은 자신이 직접 뽑은 국회의원들의 국회활동을 국회를 통해 세금제도 운영에 간접적으로 참여하고 있습니다. Rumah tangga menetapkan tujuan dari seluruh rumah tangga dengan jalan berkomunikasi bersama dengan anggota-anggotanya dan melakukan kegiatan ekonomi sesuai dengan perencanaan itu.Pajak adalah sumber dasar untuk mempertahankan dan mengembangkan negara. Pemerintah membiayai pelayanan publik yang diberikan kepada warga sebagai penerima pajak. Konstitusi Republik Korea menetapkan pembayaran pajak sebagai salah satu dari kewajiban warga negara di samping kewajiban untuk Pertahanan Keamanan, Tenaga Kerja, dan Pendidikan. Kemudian MPR Korea ①membuat undang-undang terkait (Undang-undang Perpajakan) agar pajak yang dibebankan kepada masing-masing orang adil dan seimbang, ②Menyetujui anggaran pemerintah agar keuangan negara yang berasal dari pajak dapat dikelola dengan transparan. Akhirnya, masyarakat yang membayar pajak secara tidak langsung dapat berpartisipasi dalam pengelolaan pajak melalui wakil rakyat yang telah mereka pilih langsung. ▶ 종합소득세Pajak Pendapatan Gabungan가계의 소득에는 ①근로소득, ②사업소득, ③재산소득(부동산임대소득·이자·배당) ④이전소득이 있습니다. 세법에서는 이 중 이전소득을 제외한 가계의 모든 소득을 합한 금액(‘종합소득’)에 대해 세금을 부과하고 있는데, 이를 ‘종합소득세’라고 합니다. 종합소득세는 가계가 1년 동안(1월 1일~12월 31일) 벌어들인 소득을 기준으로 합니다. Seperti yang telah dijelaskan pada ‘Topik 2. Konsumsi dan Simpanan yang Layak’, pendapatan rumah tangga secara garis besar terbagi menjadi 1) Pendapatan kerja, 2) Pendapatan usaha, 3) Pendapatan harta (pendapatan dari sewa properti, bunga, deviden), 4) Pendapatan pemindahan.Dalam Peraturan Perpajakan, gabungan dari pendapatan yang disebutkan di atas, kecuali pendapatan perpindahan, adalah pendapatan yang dikenai pajak, sehingga pajak yang harus dibayarkan dari gabungan pendapatan tersebut disebut sebagai ‘pajak pendapatan gabungan’. Pajak pendapatan gabungan terhitung berdasarkan dari total pendapatan yang dihasilkan dalam kurun waktu 1 tahun (1 Januari sampai 31 Desember) [참고] 종합소득세 신고 및 납부종합소득세의 신고 및 납부는 이듬해 5월 1일부터 5월 31일까지 인터넷, 금융기관과 신용카드를 통해 할 수 있습니다.-인터넷 : 국세청 홈텍스 (http://www.hometax.go.kr) 또는 인터넷지로 t(thp://www.giro.kr)-금융기관 : 인터넷뱅킹, 텔레뱅킹(주중 오전 9시부터 오후 5시까지), ATM(전국 은행 점포 가능)- 신용카드 : 신용카드 국세납부 홈페이지 (www.cardrotax.or.kr) [Referensi] Laporan dan Pembayaran Pajak Pendapatan GabunganWajib pajak dapat melaporkan dan membayar Pajak Pendapatan Gabungannya padatahun berikutnya mulai tanggal 1 hingga 31 Mei melalui internet, lembaga keuangan, atau kartu kredit.· Internet : Situs Kantor Layanan Pajak Nasional (http:www.hometax.go.kr) atau girointernet(http://www.giro.kr)· Lembaga keuangan : internet-banking, tele-banking, (hari kerja jam 9 pagi ~ 5 sore), (ATM di seluruh negeri)· Kartu kredit : situs pembayaran pajak lewat kartu kredit (http://www.cardrotax.or.kr)
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    • 생활정보
    2019-07-05
  • 3. 대한민국의 사회보장제도
      3. 대한민국의 사회보장제도Sistem Jaminan Sosial Republik Korea 다. 공공부조제도Sistem Bantuan Sosial 사회보험과 공공부조는 위험과 빈곤 등으로부터 국민을 보호하기 위한 사회보장제도라는 점에서 공통점이 있지만 두 제도의 실행 목적에는 차이가 있습니다. 사회보험은 미래의 인간적인 삶을 대비하기 위해 보험으로서 보장하는 것입니다. 미래에 있을 지도 모를 사회적 위험은 현재 경제적으로 안정된 사람에게도 발생할 수 있기 때문입니다. 반면 공공부조는 현재시점에 최저 생활을 유지하기 힘든 사람을 대상으로 국가가 책임지고 경제적인 복지지원을 하는 제도입니다. 빈곤층만을 지원하는 것이기에 소득 재분배 효과가 사회보험에 비해 훨씬 크다고 할 수 있습니다. 대한민국에서는 1961년부터 제도화된 생활보호법이 2000년 기초생활보장법으로대체되면서 기초생활보장제도가 시행되고 있습니다. Asuransi Sosial dan Bantuan Sosial memiliki kesamaan sebagai sistem jaminan sosial yang bermanfaat untuk melindungi masyarakat dari ancaman bahaya dan kemiskinan. Akan tetapi pada pelaksanaannya, kedua sistem tersebut mempunyai sifat yang berbeda. Asuransi Sosial adalah bentuk jaminan berupa asuransi yang berguna untuk mempersiapkan kehidupan yang baik di masa yang akan datang. Hal tersebut dikarenakan, seseorang di masa sekarang yang tergolong mampu secara finansial pun, di masa depan nanti bisa saja mendapat resiko sosial. Sedangkan Bantuan Sosial adalah sistem dukungan kesejahteraan yang merupakan tanggung jawab pemerintah untuk membantu rakyat yang mengalami kesulitan agar tetap dapat hidup dengan layak. Dalam hal membantu masyarakat golongan miskin, redistribusi penghasilan akan lebih terasa besar manfaatnya dibandingkan dengan asuransi kesehatan. Di Korea, Peraturan Perlindungan Hidup yang telah dilegislasikan sejak tahun 1961, telah diganti dengan Peraturan Jaminan Kehidupan Dasar yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2000 dan telah dijalankan sampai sekarang ini. ▶ 기초생활보장제도Sistem Jaminan Kehidupan Dasar 기초생활보장제도는 생활이 어려운 사람에게 필요한 급여를 실시해 이들의 최저생활을 보장하고 자활을 돕고자 실시되는 제도를 말합니다. 기초생활보장제도는 ①부양의무자가 없거나, ②부양의무자가 있어도 부양능력이 없거나, ③부양을 받을 수 없는 사람으로서, ④소득인정액이 최저생계비 이하인 사람을 대상자로 선정하며, 다음과 같은 7개 급여가 이루어지고 있습니다. ▲일상생활에 기본적으로 필요한 의복비·식비·연료비 등의 생계급여 ▲임차료ㆍ유지비 등의 주거급여 ▲질병·부상 등의 치료를 위한 의료급여 ▲출산을 위한 해산급여 ▲사망 시 장례를 위한 장제급여 ▲학교 등의 교육시설 입학금·수업료·학용품비 등의 교육급여 ▲자활에 필요한 자활급여 Sistem Jaminan Kehidupan Dasar adalah sistem yang bertujuan untuk membantu seseorang yang sedang mengalami kesulitan hidup agar dapat menjalani hidup dengan layak. Sistem Jaminan Kehidupan Dasar menetapkan masyarakat yang tergolong dalam kriteria berikut ini sebagai sasaran pemberian bantuan. Yaitu mereka yang ①Tidak ada orang yang menanggung, ②Ada orang yang menanggung tapi tidak mampu, ③Orang yang tidak bisa mendapat tanggungan, ④Penghasilannya di bawah standar hidup layak, dan memberikan bantuan berupa 7 hal di bawah ini : ▲Kebutuhan hidup dasar seperti biaya pakaian, makan, bahan bakar dan sebagainya ▲Biaya berkaitan dengan tempat tinggal seperti biaya sewa, biaya hidup dan sebagainya ▲Biaya untuk pengobatan sakit atau cedera ▲Biaya untuk melahirkan ▲Biaya pemakaman saat meninggal ▲Fasilitas sekolah dan biaya terkait pendidikan seperti biaya masuk, biaya kuliah, uang untuk perlengkapan sekolah dan sebagainya ▲Bantuan agar dapat hidup mandiri [참고] 최저생계비란?최저생계비는 보건복지부장관이 국민의 소득·지출 수준과 물가수준 등을 고려하여 매년 12월 1일까지 결정하며, 다음 해 기초생활보장 수급자 선정 및 급여의 기준으로 활용됩니다. 소득이 최저생계비에 미치지 못하는 기초생활수급자에게는 정부가 최저생계비에서 부족한 액수만큼 정부가 보전해줍니다. 최저생계비를 기준으로 소득이 120~150% 이하에 머무는 기초생활수급자는 ‘차상위계층’으로 분류해 다양한 복지혜택을 제공합니다. [Referensi] Biaya Hidup Minimum?Biaya Hidup Minimum adalah standar yang ditetapkan oleh Kementerian Kesehatandan Kesejahteraan setiap tahunnya selambatnya tanggal 1 Desember, dengan mempertimbangkan standar pendapatan-pengeluaran yang dibandingkan dengan standar harga barang, untuk digunakan sebagai standar penentuan dan pemberianjaminan kehidupan di tahun berikutnya. Jika penerima jaminan kehidupan dasar tersebut memiliki pendapatan yang tidak sesuai dengan Biaya Hidup Minimum, maka pemerintah akan memberikan bantuan sesuai dengan nilai yang kurang pada Biaya Hidup Minimum tersebut. Di sisi lain, apabila pendapatan masih di bawah 120%-150% walaupun sudah disesuaikan standar Biaya Hidup Minimum, orang tersebut akan digolongkan menjadi ‘masyarakat berpendapatan sangat rendah’ dan akan disediakan fasilitas kesejahteraan lainnya. 라. 사회복지서비스Layanan Kesejahteraan Sosial 사회복지서비스는 사회보험이나 공공부조와는 달리 비금전적인 형태로 이루어지는 사회보장제도이며, 복지 수혜 대상자에게 제도적인 복지 혜택을 제공합니다. 대한민국 사회보장기본법은, 사회복지서비스의 제공 주체를 국가로 한정하지 않고 지방자치단체와 민간부문을 포함하고 있습니다. 또한, 담당부처인 보건복지부는 사회복지서비스를 ①보건의료, ②건강정책, ③보건산업, ④저출산고령화, ⑤사회복지와 ⑥장애인 등 여섯 가지 분야로 업무를 세분화하여 복지서비스가 필요한 전 국민에게 혜택을 제공하는 것을 목표로 하고 있습니다. Layanan Kesejahteraan Sosial adalah fasilitas kesejahteraan bersifat institusional yang diberikan kepada penerima manfaat sebagai sistem jaminan sosial non-finansial yang berbeda dengan asuransi masyarakat dan bantuan sosial. Peraturan dasar jaminan sosial Korea memperluas pengelola layanan kesejahteraan masyarakat tidak hanya terbatas pada negara saja, tetapi pemerintah daerah dan sektor swasta pun juga bisa turut andil dalam pengelolaannya. Dan juga Kementerian Kesehatan dan Kesejahteraan sebagai kementerian yang menjadi penanggung jawab membagi Layanan Kesejahteraan Sosial menjadi 6 jenis, yaitu ①Kesehatan dan pengobatan, ②Kebijakan kesehatan, ③Industri kesehatan, ④Angka kelahiran rendah dan penduduk usia lanjut, ⑤Kesejahteraan masyarakat, ⑥Penyandang cacat, dengan tujuan untuk dapat memberikan fasilitas kesejahteraan kepada rakyat yang membutuhkan.
    • Multi-Lang
    • 영어
    2019-06-19
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