• 최종편집 2020-03-27(금)

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  • The overview of support for multicultural families in Korea
    1. What is a multicultural family? A multicultural family refers to any of the following families (Article 2, subparagraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). A family comprised of immigrants by marriage and persons who have acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea. A family comprised of a person who has acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea and a person who has acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea pursuant to the “Nationality Act”. -The provisions to support multicultural families under the “Multicultural Families Support Act” also applies to multicultural family members who raise children born in de facto marital relationships with a citizen of the Republic of Korea (Article 14 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 2. Immigrants by marriage Immigrants by marriage means any foreign resident in Korea (those who do not possess the nationality of the Republic of Korea and who legally stay in Korea for the purpose of residing in Korea) who had or has a marital relationship with a Korean national (Article 2, subparagraphs 3 and 1 of the “Framework Act On Treatment Of Foreigners Residing In The Republic Of Korea”). Immigrants by marriage, etc. means persons who obtained permission for naturalization as members of a multicultural family (Article 2, subparagraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 3. Master plan for multicultural family support The Minister of Gender Equality and Family must establish a master plan for policies on multicultural families every five years to support multicultural families following prior consultation with the heads of the relevant central administrative agencies (Article 3-2, paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”): ▲Basic direction-setting for support policies for multicultural families ▲Matters concerning development measures in each field for supporting multicultural families and evaluation thereof ▲Matters concerning improvement of support systems for multicultural families ▲Matters concerning promotion of multicultural family members’ activities in all areas including economy, society, and culture ▲Matters concerning financial resources for supporting multicultural families and distribution thereof ▲Other matters necessary for supporting multicultural families 4. Provision of Daily Life Information and Educational Support Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive basic information necessary for living in the Republic of Korea (including information related to learning and guidance for children and juveniles), and education for social adaptation, vocational education and training, as well as Korean language education to enhance their communication skills (Article 6, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”).  Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive basic information necessary to understand the countries and cultures of the immigrants by marriage, etc. and receive support for related education (Article 6, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). In the process of the above education, the members of multicultural families may receive education in various ways, such as through visiting education and distance education, to ensure that all immigrants by marriage, etc. and their spouses and family members have access to educational services regardless of their places of residence and home environment, etc. (Article 6, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). -The costs of the above visiting education may be covered by differentiated subsidies in accordance with standards determined and publicly notified by the Minister of Gender Equality and Family, such as household income levels of immigrants by marriage, etc. and types of education (Article 6, paragraph 4 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 5. Protection of and Support for Victims of Domestic Violence The state and local governments must endeavor to prevent domestic violence in multicultural families in accordance with the Act on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection, etc. of Victims (Article 8, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments are able to protect and support immigrants by marriage, etc. who are victims of domestic violence (Article 8, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments must endeavor to establish more counseling centers and protection facilities for victims of domestic violence which provide foreign language interpretation services to protect and support immigrants by marriage, etc. who are victims of domestic violence (Article 8, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). In the event that immigrants by marriage, etc. terminate a marital relationship due to domestic violence, the state and local governments may provide necessary services to them, such as language interpretation, legal counseling, and administrative assistance in making statements and finding facts, so that they will not be placed at a disadvantage due to communication difficulties and/or lack of information about the legal system and other relevant matters (Article 8, paragraph 4 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 6. Medical and Health Support Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive medical services, such as education on nutrition and health, prenatal and postpartum care, and medical examinations, to ensure their healthy living (Article 9, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments are able to provide immigrants by marriage, etc. interpretation services when they receive the medical services provided above (Article 9, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 7. Care and Education for Children and Juveniles The state and local governments must not discriminate against children or juveniles of any multicultural family in providing care and education services for children and juveniles (Article 10, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments set measures in place for educational assistance to children and juveniles of multicultural families to help them to quickly adapt to school life, and children and juveniles of multicultural families are entitled to receive support for extracurricular or after-school education programs (Article 10, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). -Children and juveniles means persons of age 24 years or younger (Article 2, subparagraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). Members of multicultural families under 18 years of age are entitled to receive support for preschool care and education services to develop language skills as well as the assistance necessary for improving their linguistic proficiency, such as learning materials and teaching support in learning of Korean language and the mother tongue of their father or mother who is an immigrant by marriage (Article 10, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 8. Provision of Multilingual Services Multilingual services may be received to remove communication barriers facing immigrants by marriage, etc. and to improve accessibility to services provided in relation to the support policies for multicultural families (Article 11 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 9. Support to promote the welfare of multicultural families in farming and fishing communities The state and local governments must provide full support to multicultural families living in farming and fishing communities to promote their welfare and help them lead stable family lives (Article 18-2 of the “Special Act for the Enhancement of Quality of Life of Farmers and Fishermen and the Promotion of Regional Development of Agriculture and Fishing Village Area”). 10. Enhancement of understanding regarding cultural diversity The State and local governments must endeavor to take measures such as for education, publicity, and correction of unreasonable institutions, etc. to ensure that Koreans and foreign residents in Korea understand and respect each other's history, culture, and institutions (Article 18 of the “Framework Act on Treatment of Foreigners Residing in the Republic of Korea”). 11. Support with proceeds from lottery ticket sales, etc. A part of the proceeds from lottery ticket sales and the lottery fund must be used for projects to support multicultural families (Article 23, paragraph 3, subparagraph 3 of the “Lottery Ticket and Lottery Fund Act”). -The web portal for multicultural families, Danuri (http://www.liveinkorea.kr), is managed under the support of the lottery fund to offer information on living in Korea and the Multicultural Family Support Center as well as counseling in foreign languages.by the ministry of government legistration  
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    2020-03-18
  • Enrollment and transfer guide : For children who came to Korea after living abroad
         
    • Multi-Lang
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    2020-03-18
  • Some special stories about COVID-19 outbreak in Korea
    WHO commends Korea's response to COVID-19 outbreak By Oh Hyun-woo and Kim Minji The World Health Organization (WHO) has lauded Korea's response to the COVID-19 outbreak, while warning that the threat of a pandemic "has become very real."  WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus on March 9 told a news conference at his organization's headquarters in Geneva that COVID-19 will be the first pandemic in history "that could be controlled."  He added that Korea and Singapore are models demonstrating effective measures to contain the outbreak like closing schools and canceling mass gatherings. "The Republic of Korea has increased efforts to identify all cases and contacts, including drive-through temperature testing to widen the net and catch cases that might otherwise be missed," he said. "Of the four countries with the most cases, China is bringing its epidemic under control and there is now a decline in new cases being reported from the Republic of Korea. Both these countries demonstrate that it's never too late to turn back the tide on this virus." "The rule of the game is never give up," he said, adding, "We continue to call on all countries to take early and aggressive action to protect their people and save lives." Gov't reports success in slowing COVID-19 outbreakBy Kim Young Deok and Kim Minji "We are seeing success in our efforts to stem the spread of COVID-19. Korea is creating a new system to respond to the infectious disease." So said Vice Health and Welfare Minister Kim Gang-lip, who is also deputy director of the Central Epidemic Control Countermeasure Headquarters under the Korean Centers for Disease Control, on March 9 at a joint government briefing with 44 foreign media outlets attending on the nation's response to COVID-19 at the Foreign Press Center in Seoul. The official said the government's new response system provides information transparently and rapidly, makes full use of advanced information technology, conducts diagnostic testing faster than any other country, and has highly trained and outstanding medical professionals and top-notch medical institutions. "The travel histories of confirmed patients are being made public and briefings are being conducted twice a day," he said, citing 50 drive-through screening clinics where a medical examination, heat detection and sample extraction take just ten minutes while people remain seated in their vehicles. He added that Korea is capable of processing up to 15,000 diagnostic tests a day. "The world now faces a common threat, COVID-19. Close collaboration through solidarity will enable us to defeat our common enemy," he said, adding, “Korea, as a member of the global community, will share its experience and knowledge with the rest of the world." At a Q&A session, health officials evaluated the government's preemptive measures for successful prevention of the disease. "Cooperation with civic groups was led by the government," said Kim Yeon-jae, an infectious disease specialist at the Center for Infectious Disease of the National Medical Center, adding, "We saw the participation of a large number of medical experts, and were able to jointly evaluate with the private group, quickly assess the diagnosis kits and distribute them fast." Start of school year delayed By Park Hye Ri and Lee Jihae The start of the academic year for preschools and elementary, middle and high schools will be further delayed to March 23 amid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education Yoo Eun-hae on March 2 at Government Complex-Seoul announced the government's policy toward educational management and support in response to COVID-19. To protect students against the outbreak, schools nationwide will postpone the beginning of the academic year for two more weeks to March 23. "The two weeks are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19. We need at least one more week to evaluate whether the environment is safe enough for students to carry out their scholastic activities," she said. The ministry also announced measures to supplement education for students and make up for the delay in the start of the academic year. To compensate for time lost during school closures, the public education offices of cities and provinces will cooperate with schools to provide in this month's first week free digital textbooks and online educational content. From the second week, they will open academic platforms in online scholastic communities and social media to give out assignments and scholastic feedback. The ministry will carry out additional surveys on preschool and elementary school students who urgently need babysitters. To enable parents to care for their own children, relevant government branches such as the Ministry of Employment and Labor and the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family are boosting cooperation to actively support flexible work hours and time off. The Ministry of Education also advised universities to offer online classes to students in lieu of regular classes. Colleges nationwide will hold online courses and receive government support for scholastic management for the first semester of the year.
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    2020-03-17
  • How the World’s Largest Coronavirus Outbreaks Are Growing
    Milan, Italy. Daegu, South Korea. Qom, Iran. Many of the world’s largest coronavirus outbreaks took root in and around well-traveled cities, but they have since grown to encompass entire countries. Cases have spread across Italy’s north and down to Rome, leading to a lockdown of the entire country. Iran’s capital, where leaders dismissed the virus just two weeks ago, has seen thousands infected. And cases continue to surge across Europe. The outbreaks are not all heading in the same direction. South Korea has managed to slow growth of new cases for now, through intensive testing and monitoring of infections. Italy, Iran and the United States are still reporting large numbers of new cases every day. Official case totals are an imperfect method of judging the world’s outbreaks. Every country has more cases than it has been able to detect through lab tests. And a shortage of testing kits in some countries, like Indonesia and the United States, along with a lack of public disclosure in others, like Egypt, means official reports are probably masking large outbreaks. Here’s the extent of some of the largest outbreaks in the world and information on how these countries are trying to slow the spread of the virus.   Italy An outbreak in Lombardy has threatened the entire country. With more than 15,000 confirmed cases, Italy has reported the largest outbreak outside of China. Italian authorities first put restrictions in place in the northern region of Lombardy, where the outbreak first accelerated, before moving on Monday to restrict the movement and end public gatherings for all 60 million citizens in the country. At least 1,000 people have died because of the virus. On Wednesday, the government shut down basically all commercial activities, including bars and restaurants.  Supermarkets, pharmacies and newstands can remain open. All schools are closed until at least April 3. But Italy’s nationwide lockdown, the first in Europe, is not a severe ban on movement like the one put in place in Wuhan, China.  Italians are still able to move around for work, to buy groceries and other essentials, and for reasons having to do with health, child or senior care. Police checkpoints have been set up around the country, at which people are required to stop and fill out official forms explaining their movements. The number of new cases in Italy had steadily increased for more than a week before dropping on Tuesday. On that day, though, there were still almost 1,000 new cases. Italy is aggressively testing for the virus, which could help explain why its total confirmed cases are higher than some other countries in Europe. On Tuesday, more than 60,000 tests had been performed, more than twice as many tests than the United Kingdom had done. “Today, the red zone is Italy,” Matteo Renzi, a former prime minister, told The New York Times. But in 10 days, he warned, it will be Madrid, Paris and Berlin. If Italy cannot show how to stop the virus, he said, “the red zone will be Europe.”   South Korea The outbreak has slowed after weeks of intense surveillance and testing. In contrast to most other countries, South Korea’s reports of new cases have begun to slow — at least for now. Unlike other countries with major outbreaks, South Korea, with a population of 50 million, has not outright restricted the movement of its citizens and has instead focused on aggressively monitoring for infections. More than 7,800 cases and 66 deaths have been reported. More than 235,000 people have been tested, and health officials carefully track down people who may have symptoms, testing more than 10,000 people each day. The government even opened drive-through testing centers. While health officials are battling smaller clusters of infections in other cities, much of the effort has focused on Daegu, the center of the outbreak, where many people were infected in a large church congregation. Health officials also introduced aggressive public awareness campaigns, sending out mobile phone alerts to citizens whenever a new case is reported in their districts. Updates are provided on government websites and mobile apps as to how many people have been tested and where, along with brief sketches on each patient: their gender, how they became infected and where they are being treated, as well as which places they visited before testing positive. Officials have advised against holding large gatherings, like outdoor rallies and religious services. Schools remain closed.   Iran The true size of the rapidly expanding outbreak is unknown. Two weeks ago, Iran’s leaders denied the coronavirus epidemic would be a problem. Now, with the total number of cases standing at more than 10,000, and with more than 400 people dead, Iran is scrambling to control one of the worst outbreaks in the world. The virus started in the holy city of Qom, where thousands of pilgrims from Iran and around the Middle East travel each day. Two days after the first deaths and cases of the virus were reported in Qom, Iran held parliamentary elections, which are widely believed to have been the cause of the virus spreading to other provinces. The authorities failed to take protective measures at this early stage. But the problem became impossible to ignore after nearly three dozen Iranian government officials and members of parliament were infected, and a senior adviser to the supreme leader died. Now, Friday prayers are cancelled, and schools and universities are closed until mid-April. Government offices remain open, but employees must work reduced hours. For everyone else, officials are asking people to leave their homes only when necessary. A severe shortage of testing kits in Iran means the spread of the virus is likely much higher than reported. One study projected a week ago that the true total of infections may have been more than 18,000, “and a week ago is eons when we are talking about an epidemic,” said Isaac Bogoch, a Toronto doctor who is a co-author of that study.March 12, 2020  
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    2020-03-16
  • Enrolling Your Child in School
         
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    2020-03-04
  • Gut Troubles-Pain, Gassiness, Bloating, and More
    Everyone has pain or discomfort in their gut occasionally. Maybe you ate something that didn’t agree with you. Or you had an infection that made you sick to your stomach for a few days.   But if pain and other gut symptoms go on for weeks or longer, something more serious might be wrong. Digestive system diseases and disorders are very common. Around 60 to 70 million people in the U.S. live with a digestive disease.   It’s important not to ignore symptoms in your gut. Many digestive disorders are easiest to treat when they first develop. Potential Causes One of the most serious gut disorders is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although it’s not very common. IBD occurs when immune system cells in the gut overreact to a perceived threat to your body. Often, that “threat” is the normal bugs that make up the microbiome?the microscopic creatures like bacteria, fungi, and viruses?that live in your gut. This overreaction can damage the digestive (gastrointestinal or GI) tract.   The two main types of IBD are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. “Crohn’s can occur anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus,” says Dr. Judy Cho, an IBD expert at Mount Sinai. Ulcerative colitis happens only in the large intestine.   These two diseases also differ in how deeply they can damage tissue. “Ulcerative colitis causes damage in the gut lining,” explains Dr. Dermot McGovern, who studies IBD at Cedars-Sinai. “Crohn’s disease can go all the way through the gut.” Severe cases of Crohn’s can lead to narrowing of the intestines and even holes in the gut.   Other conditions can harm the lining of the stomach and lead to a type of inflammation called gastritis. The most common cause of gastritis is infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori. Other causes include the long-term use of some pain medications. If left untreated, gastritis can lead to painful ulcers.   Twelve percent of people in the U.S. have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). “This is a very common disorder. It’s characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits,” says Dr. Anthony Lembo, an IBS researcher at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.   Researchers don’t understand exactly what causes IBS. It may have different causes in different people. Sometimes it involves problems with how the brain and gut work together.   Other things that can cause pain and discomfort in the GI tract are acid reflux or food sensitivities. Pinpointing the Problem It can be tricky to diagnose a digestive disease because they share a lot of symptoms, explains Cho. Symptoms of many gut conditions include pain, gassiness, bloating, and diarrhea.   “But for IBD, there are several red-flag symptoms,” she says. These are blood in the stool, weight loss, and signs of inflammation found in a blood test. A sign of IBD in children is failure to grow, Cho adds.   IBS can give some people diarrhea and others constipation. Some people go back and forth between the two.   Gastritis and food sensitivities can also cause long-term gut discomfort. To figure out what’s causing gut troubles, doctors may need to run a variety of tests. These can include blood tests and a stool test to look for infection.   Some people may have an imaging test, such as a CT scan. Others may need to have an endoscopy. Endoscopy uses a long, flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end to look in the intestines or stomach. Treating Pain and Discomfort While symptoms for different gut disorders can be similar, treatments vary widely. For gastritis caused by bacterial infection, antibiotics are used to kill the germs. If medications are causing gastritis, switching to a different kind of drug will usually allow the stomach to heal.   Food sensitivities can be managed by changing your diet. A nutritionist can help you figure out what foods might be irritating your gut. Acid reflux can also often be improved by changes in your diet and medication.   Treatment isn’t one-size-fits-all for IBS, Lembo explains, because it can have different causes. Some people can get some relief by adjusting their diet. (See the Wise Choices box for foods that can trigger gut symptoms.)   “We also tell patients to eat two to three meals a day, maybe have a snack or two. But don’t eat all day long. Give your gut a chance to rest,” he says.   And while stress doesn’t cause IBS, it can trigger flare-ups of symptoms in many people, says Lembo. Stress reduction strategies and cognitive behavior therapy?a type of talk therapy?can help some people manage symptoms of IBS.   IBD is harder to treat than most gut disorders. “It’s impossible to cure IBD right now,” says Cho. Treatments focus on stopping inflammation long enough to allow the gut tissue to heal, she explains.   Some medications used for IBD control inflammation. Other newer drugs suppress the immune system. But these newer drugs can have serious side effects and are usually only used when others don’t work.   “Research has discovered that the earlier you use these medications, the more likely you are to respond,” says McGovern. So, people with high-risk disease may get these drugs first now, he explains. Looking for Better Treatments Researchers are searching for new ways to prevent and manage gut disorders. Lembo, for example, is testing whether peppermint oil can help the gut muscles relax in people with IBS.   Existing treatments for IBD only work for about a third of people who try them. And even then, McGovern says, they may lose their effects over time.   Both Cho and McGovern are working to understand the genetics of IBD. This information could be used at all stages of the disease, explains Cho. For example, if a test could identify children at higher risk of developing IBD later in life, “theoretically it could be prevented,” she says. Strategies could include giving anti-inflammatory drugs before IBD develops or changing the gut microbiome to prevent an immune attack.   “And what we’re all interested in is: Can we use some of these genetic signatures to identify new drug targets for IBD?” adds McGovern. That could also eventually help predict who would most likely benefit from a drug, he says.   One of the newest drugs being tested for IBD was based on a genetic discovery, Cho explains. “There’s increasing precision in treatment,” she says. “Using genetic knowledge to help choose therapies for IBD is something that I think is doable in the next five to 10 years.”   For now, talk with your doctor if gut discomfort or pain are impacting your quality of life. Available treatments can help most people get their insides back in order again.   NIH(News in Health), USA
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    2020-02-25

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  • The overview of support for multicultural families in Korea
    1. What is a multicultural family? A multicultural family refers to any of the following families (Article 2, subparagraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). A family comprised of immigrants by marriage and persons who have acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea. A family comprised of a person who has acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea and a person who has acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea pursuant to the “Nationality Act”. -The provisions to support multicultural families under the “Multicultural Families Support Act” also applies to multicultural family members who raise children born in de facto marital relationships with a citizen of the Republic of Korea (Article 14 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 2. Immigrants by marriage Immigrants by marriage means any foreign resident in Korea (those who do not possess the nationality of the Republic of Korea and who legally stay in Korea for the purpose of residing in Korea) who had or has a marital relationship with a Korean national (Article 2, subparagraphs 3 and 1 of the “Framework Act On Treatment Of Foreigners Residing In The Republic Of Korea”). Immigrants by marriage, etc. means persons who obtained permission for naturalization as members of a multicultural family (Article 2, subparagraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 3. Master plan for multicultural family support The Minister of Gender Equality and Family must establish a master plan for policies on multicultural families every five years to support multicultural families following prior consultation with the heads of the relevant central administrative agencies (Article 3-2, paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”): ▲Basic direction-setting for support policies for multicultural families ▲Matters concerning development measures in each field for supporting multicultural families and evaluation thereof ▲Matters concerning improvement of support systems for multicultural families ▲Matters concerning promotion of multicultural family members’ activities in all areas including economy, society, and culture ▲Matters concerning financial resources for supporting multicultural families and distribution thereof ▲Other matters necessary for supporting multicultural families 4. Provision of Daily Life Information and Educational Support Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive basic information necessary for living in the Republic of Korea (including information related to learning and guidance for children and juveniles), and education for social adaptation, vocational education and training, as well as Korean language education to enhance their communication skills (Article 6, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”).  Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive basic information necessary to understand the countries and cultures of the immigrants by marriage, etc. and receive support for related education (Article 6, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). In the process of the above education, the members of multicultural families may receive education in various ways, such as through visiting education and distance education, to ensure that all immigrants by marriage, etc. and their spouses and family members have access to educational services regardless of their places of residence and home environment, etc. (Article 6, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). -The costs of the above visiting education may be covered by differentiated subsidies in accordance with standards determined and publicly notified by the Minister of Gender Equality and Family, such as household income levels of immigrants by marriage, etc. and types of education (Article 6, paragraph 4 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 5. Protection of and Support for Victims of Domestic Violence The state and local governments must endeavor to prevent domestic violence in multicultural families in accordance with the Act on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection, etc. of Victims (Article 8, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments are able to protect and support immigrants by marriage, etc. who are victims of domestic violence (Article 8, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments must endeavor to establish more counseling centers and protection facilities for victims of domestic violence which provide foreign language interpretation services to protect and support immigrants by marriage, etc. who are victims of domestic violence (Article 8, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). In the event that immigrants by marriage, etc. terminate a marital relationship due to domestic violence, the state and local governments may provide necessary services to them, such as language interpretation, legal counseling, and administrative assistance in making statements and finding facts, so that they will not be placed at a disadvantage due to communication difficulties and/or lack of information about the legal system and other relevant matters (Article 8, paragraph 4 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 6. Medical and Health Support Members of multicultural families are entitled to receive medical services, such as education on nutrition and health, prenatal and postpartum care, and medical examinations, to ensure their healthy living (Article 9, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments are able to provide immigrants by marriage, etc. interpretation services when they receive the medical services provided above (Article 9, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 7. Care and Education for Children and Juveniles The state and local governments must not discriminate against children or juveniles of any multicultural family in providing care and education services for children and juveniles (Article 10, paragraph 1 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). The state and local governments set measures in place for educational assistance to children and juveniles of multicultural families to help them to quickly adapt to school life, and children and juveniles of multicultural families are entitled to receive support for extracurricular or after-school education programs (Article 10, paragraph 2 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). -Children and juveniles means persons of age 24 years or younger (Article 2, subparagraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). Members of multicultural families under 18 years of age are entitled to receive support for preschool care and education services to develop language skills as well as the assistance necessary for improving their linguistic proficiency, such as learning materials and teaching support in learning of Korean language and the mother tongue of their father or mother who is an immigrant by marriage (Article 10, paragraph 3 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 8. Provision of Multilingual Services Multilingual services may be received to remove communication barriers facing immigrants by marriage, etc. and to improve accessibility to services provided in relation to the support policies for multicultural families (Article 11 of the “Multicultural Families Support Act”). 9. Support to promote the welfare of multicultural families in farming and fishing communities The state and local governments must provide full support to multicultural families living in farming and fishing communities to promote their welfare and help them lead stable family lives (Article 18-2 of the “Special Act for the Enhancement of Quality of Life of Farmers and Fishermen and the Promotion of Regional Development of Agriculture and Fishing Village Area”). 10. Enhancement of understanding regarding cultural diversity The State and local governments must endeavor to take measures such as for education, publicity, and correction of unreasonable institutions, etc. to ensure that Koreans and foreign residents in Korea understand and respect each other's history, culture, and institutions (Article 18 of the “Framework Act on Treatment of Foreigners Residing in the Republic of Korea”). 11. Support with proceeds from lottery ticket sales, etc. A part of the proceeds from lottery ticket sales and the lottery fund must be used for projects to support multicultural families (Article 23, paragraph 3, subparagraph 3 of the “Lottery Ticket and Lottery Fund Act”). -The web portal for multicultural families, Danuri (http://www.liveinkorea.kr), is managed under the support of the lottery fund to offer information on living in Korea and the Multicultural Family Support Center as well as counseling in foreign languages.by the ministry of government legistration  
    • Multi-Lang
    • English
    2020-03-18
  • Enrollment and transfer guide : For children who came to Korea after living abroad
         
    • Multi-Lang
    • English
    2020-03-18
  • Some special stories about COVID-19 outbreak in Korea
    WHO commends Korea's response to COVID-19 outbreak By Oh Hyun-woo and Kim Minji The World Health Organization (WHO) has lauded Korea's response to the COVID-19 outbreak, while warning that the threat of a pandemic "has become very real."  WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus on March 9 told a news conference at his organization's headquarters in Geneva that COVID-19 will be the first pandemic in history "that could be controlled."  He added that Korea and Singapore are models demonstrating effective measures to contain the outbreak like closing schools and canceling mass gatherings. "The Republic of Korea has increased efforts to identify all cases and contacts, including drive-through temperature testing to widen the net and catch cases that might otherwise be missed," he said. "Of the four countries with the most cases, China is bringing its epidemic under control and there is now a decline in new cases being reported from the Republic of Korea. Both these countries demonstrate that it's never too late to turn back the tide on this virus." "The rule of the game is never give up," he said, adding, "We continue to call on all countries to take early and aggressive action to protect their people and save lives." Gov't reports success in slowing COVID-19 outbreakBy Kim Young Deok and Kim Minji "We are seeing success in our efforts to stem the spread of COVID-19. Korea is creating a new system to respond to the infectious disease." So said Vice Health and Welfare Minister Kim Gang-lip, who is also deputy director of the Central Epidemic Control Countermeasure Headquarters under the Korean Centers for Disease Control, on March 9 at a joint government briefing with 44 foreign media outlets attending on the nation's response to COVID-19 at the Foreign Press Center in Seoul. The official said the government's new response system provides information transparently and rapidly, makes full use of advanced information technology, conducts diagnostic testing faster than any other country, and has highly trained and outstanding medical professionals and top-notch medical institutions. "The travel histories of confirmed patients are being made public and briefings are being conducted twice a day," he said, citing 50 drive-through screening clinics where a medical examination, heat detection and sample extraction take just ten minutes while people remain seated in their vehicles. He added that Korea is capable of processing up to 15,000 diagnostic tests a day. "The world now faces a common threat, COVID-19. Close collaboration through solidarity will enable us to defeat our common enemy," he said, adding, “Korea, as a member of the global community, will share its experience and knowledge with the rest of the world." At a Q&A session, health officials evaluated the government's preemptive measures for successful prevention of the disease. "Cooperation with civic groups was led by the government," said Kim Yeon-jae, an infectious disease specialist at the Center for Infectious Disease of the National Medical Center, adding, "We saw the participation of a large number of medical experts, and were able to jointly evaluate with the private group, quickly assess the diagnosis kits and distribute them fast." Start of school year delayed By Park Hye Ri and Lee Jihae The start of the academic year for preschools and elementary, middle and high schools will be further delayed to March 23 amid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education Yoo Eun-hae on March 2 at Government Complex-Seoul announced the government's policy toward educational management and support in response to COVID-19. To protect students against the outbreak, schools nationwide will postpone the beginning of the academic year for two more weeks to March 23. "The two weeks are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19. We need at least one more week to evaluate whether the environment is safe enough for students to carry out their scholastic activities," she said. The ministry also announced measures to supplement education for students and make up for the delay in the start of the academic year. To compensate for time lost during school closures, the public education offices of cities and provinces will cooperate with schools to provide in this month's first week free digital textbooks and online educational content. From the second week, they will open academic platforms in online scholastic communities and social media to give out assignments and scholastic feedback. The ministry will carry out additional surveys on preschool and elementary school students who urgently need babysitters. To enable parents to care for their own children, relevant government branches such as the Ministry of Employment and Labor and the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family are boosting cooperation to actively support flexible work hours and time off. The Ministry of Education also advised universities to offer online classes to students in lieu of regular classes. Colleges nationwide will hold online courses and receive government support for scholastic management for the first semester of the year.
    • Multi-Lang
    • English
    2020-03-17
  • How the World’s Largest Coronavirus Outbreaks Are Growing
    Milan, Italy. Daegu, South Korea. Qom, Iran. Many of the world’s largest coronavirus outbreaks took root in and around well-traveled cities, but they have since grown to encompass entire countries. Cases have spread across Italy’s north and down to Rome, leading to a lockdown of the entire country. Iran’s capital, where leaders dismissed the virus just two weeks ago, has seen thousands infected. And cases continue to surge across Europe. The outbreaks are not all heading in the same direction. South Korea has managed to slow growth of new cases for now, through intensive testing and monitoring of infections. Italy, Iran and the United States are still reporting large numbers of new cases every day. Official case totals are an imperfect method of judging the world’s outbreaks. Every country has more cases than it has been able to detect through lab tests. And a shortage of testing kits in some countries, like Indonesia and the United States, along with a lack of public disclosure in others, like Egypt, means official reports are probably masking large outbreaks. Here’s the extent of some of the largest outbreaks in the world and information on how these countries are trying to slow the spread of the virus.   Italy An outbreak in Lombardy has threatened the entire country. With more than 15,000 confirmed cases, Italy has reported the largest outbreak outside of China. Italian authorities first put restrictions in place in the northern region of Lombardy, where the outbreak first accelerated, before moving on Monday to restrict the movement and end public gatherings for all 60 million citizens in the country. At least 1,000 people have died because of the virus. On Wednesday, the government shut down basically all commercial activities, including bars and restaurants.  Supermarkets, pharmacies and newstands can remain open. All schools are closed until at least April 3. But Italy’s nationwide lockdown, the first in Europe, is not a severe ban on movement like the one put in place in Wuhan, China.  Italians are still able to move around for work, to buy groceries and other essentials, and for reasons having to do with health, child or senior care. Police checkpoints have been set up around the country, at which people are required to stop and fill out official forms explaining their movements. The number of new cases in Italy had steadily increased for more than a week before dropping on Tuesday. On that day, though, there were still almost 1,000 new cases. Italy is aggressively testing for the virus, which could help explain why its total confirmed cases are higher than some other countries in Europe. On Tuesday, more than 60,000 tests had been performed, more than twice as many tests than the United Kingdom had done. “Today, the red zone is Italy,” Matteo Renzi, a former prime minister, told The New York Times. But in 10 days, he warned, it will be Madrid, Paris and Berlin. If Italy cannot show how to stop the virus, he said, “the red zone will be Europe.”   South Korea The outbreak has slowed after weeks of intense surveillance and testing. In contrast to most other countries, South Korea’s reports of new cases have begun to slow — at least for now. Unlike other countries with major outbreaks, South Korea, with a population of 50 million, has not outright restricted the movement of its citizens and has instead focused on aggressively monitoring for infections. More than 7,800 cases and 66 deaths have been reported. More than 235,000 people have been tested, and health officials carefully track down people who may have symptoms, testing more than 10,000 people each day. The government even opened drive-through testing centers. While health officials are battling smaller clusters of infections in other cities, much of the effort has focused on Daegu, the center of the outbreak, where many people were infected in a large church congregation. Health officials also introduced aggressive public awareness campaigns, sending out mobile phone alerts to citizens whenever a new case is reported in their districts. Updates are provided on government websites and mobile apps as to how many people have been tested and where, along with brief sketches on each patient: their gender, how they became infected and where they are being treated, as well as which places they visited before testing positive. Officials have advised against holding large gatherings, like outdoor rallies and religious services. Schools remain closed.   Iran The true size of the rapidly expanding outbreak is unknown. Two weeks ago, Iran’s leaders denied the coronavirus epidemic would be a problem. Now, with the total number of cases standing at more than 10,000, and with more than 400 people dead, Iran is scrambling to control one of the worst outbreaks in the world. The virus started in the holy city of Qom, where thousands of pilgrims from Iran and around the Middle East travel each day. Two days after the first deaths and cases of the virus were reported in Qom, Iran held parliamentary elections, which are widely believed to have been the cause of the virus spreading to other provinces. The authorities failed to take protective measures at this early stage. But the problem became impossible to ignore after nearly three dozen Iranian government officials and members of parliament were infected, and a senior adviser to the supreme leader died. Now, Friday prayers are cancelled, and schools and universities are closed until mid-April. Government offices remain open, but employees must work reduced hours. For everyone else, officials are asking people to leave their homes only when necessary. A severe shortage of testing kits in Iran means the spread of the virus is likely much higher than reported. One study projected a week ago that the true total of infections may have been more than 18,000, “and a week ago is eons when we are talking about an epidemic,” said Isaac Bogoch, a Toronto doctor who is a co-author of that study.March 12, 2020  
    • Multi-Lang
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    2020-03-16
  • Enrolling Your Child in School
         
    • Information
    • 육아
    2020-03-04
  • What is coronavirus and what are the symptoms?
    A virus causing severe lung disease that started in China has spread to 27 other countries, including the South Korea.The coronavirus had infected 78,159 people in China as of 26 February, with 2,717 of them dying. What are the symptoms? It seems to start with a fever, followed by a dry cough. After a week, it leads to shortness of breath and some patients require hospital treatment. The incubation period - between infection and showing any symptoms - lasts up to 14 days, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). But some researchers say it may be as long as 24 days. And Chinese scientists say some people may be infectious even before their symptoms appear. How deadly is the coronavirus? Based on data from 44,000 patients with this coronavirus, the WHO says:▲81% develop mild symptoms ▲14% develop severe symptoms ▲5% become critically ill The proportion dying from the disease, which has been named Covid-19, appears low (between 1% and 2%) - but the figures are unreliable. Thousands are still being treated but may go on to die - so the death rate could be higher. But it is also unclear how many mild cases remain unreported - so the death rate could also be lower. To put this into context, about one billion people catch influenza every year, with between 290,000 and 650,000 deaths. The severity of flu changes every year. Can coronavirus be treated or cured? Right now, treatment relies on the basics - keeping the patient's body going, including breathing support, until their immune system can fight off the virus. However, the work to develop a vaccine is under way and it is hoped there will be human trials before the end of the year. Hospitals are also testing anti-viral drugs to see if they have an impact. How can I protect myself? The WHO says: ▲Wash your hands-soap or hand gel can kill the virus ▲Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing-ideally with a tissue-and wash your hands afterwards, to prevent the virus spreading ▲Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth-if your hands touch a surface contaminated by the virus, this could transfer it into your body ▲Don't get too close to people coughing, sneezing or with a fever-they can propel small droplets containing the virus into the air-ideally, keep 1m (3ft) away What is the advice in the UK? Anyone experiencing symptoms, even if mild, after travelling from mainland China, Thailand, Japan, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia or Macau in the last 14 days, is advised to stay indoors and call the NHS 111 phone service. If you have returned from the following specific areas since February 19, you should call NHS 111 and stay indoors and avoid contact with other people even if you do not have symptoms:▲Iran ▲lockdown areas in northern Italy ▲special care zones in South Korea ▲Hubei provinceIf you have returned from the following areas since February 19 and develop symptoms-even mild ones-stay indoors, avoid contact with others and call NHS 111:▲Northern Italy (above but not including Pisa, Florence and Rimini) ▲Vietnam ▲Cambodia ▲Laos ▲MyanmarThe Foreign Office now advises against all but essential travel to 10 small towns in Lombardy and one in Veneto in Italy, which have been isolated by the country's authorities How fast is it spreading? Thousands of new cases are being reported each day. However, analysts believe the true scale could be 10 times larger than official figures.Outbreaks have now occurred in South Korea, Italy and Iran, raising fears that it could become a pandemic. A pandemic is declared when an infectious disease threatens different parts of the world simultaneously.The WHO has said it is concerned about the number of cases with no clear link to China or other confirmed cases. It has said the window of opportunity to contain the virus was "narrowing".With colds and flu tending to spread fastest in the winter, there is hope the turning of the seasons may help stem the outbreak.However, a different strain of coronavirus - Middle East respiratory syndrome - emerged in the summer, in Saudi Arabia, so there's no guarantee warmer weather will halt the outbreak.▲A visual guide to the outbreak ▲How a virus reveals the many ways China is feared ▲Britain's race to contain the coronavirus ▲China and the virus that threatens everything ▲What should I do if I travel to Italy? and other questions answered How did it start? This virus is not really "new" - it is just new to humans, having jumped from one species to another.Many of the early cases were linked to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market, in Wuhan.In China, a lot of people come into close contact with animals harbouring viruses-and the country's dense urban population means the disease can be easily spread.Severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars), which is also caused by a coronavirus, started off in bats and then infected the civet cat, which in turn passed it on to humans.The Sars outbreak, which started in China in 2002, killed 774 of the 8,098 people infected.The current virus-one of seven types of coronavirus-does not seem to be mutating so far. But while it appears stable, this is something scientists will be watching closely.
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    2020-03-03
  • “Appreciating Korea despite COVID-19 outbreak“
    The COVID-19 outbreak in Korea is scaring us. Who isn't scared? Even if Korea suffers from a difficult situation, we do have things to be grateful. Life goes on. Email, emergency and delivery messages are always going back and forth to allow us to get on with our lives. We just don't sit back and wait for what's next. There are things beyond our control but there's so much we can still do in the confines of our homes. Emergency texts are sent to alert people about a situation. It might be annoying but it gives relief to know what's happening. The Korean government has sent warnings on bad air quality, cold and heat waves, and now the areas and whereabouts of those with COVID-19. The country's online shopping and delivery systems are also exemplary. Just about all groceries like meat, fish, milk, vegetables, fruits and other household needs are delivered to your doorstep. Delivery often goes well until the next morning, especially when a surge in orders is expected. My children's school and international schools are not letting this outbreak take away from their school days. The government also postponed by one week the start of the school year for kindergartens and elementary, middle and high schools to March 9. They continue to teach children online. My kids prefer to go to school but have learned to adjust because they have to. Teachers have also had to go out of their usual routines. We will wake up one of these days and be grateful when the outbreak is over. What a joyful feeling that will be. *This article is written by a Korea.net Honorary Reporter. Our group of Honorary Reporters are from all around the world, and they share with Korea.net their love and passion for all things Korea  
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    2020-03-02
  • Do I Need to Change My Parenting Style to Keep Up With My Kid’s Friends?
    Parents.com’s ‘Ask Your Mom’ advice columnist, Emily Edlynn, Ph.D. explains how compromise and awareness of your child's developing friendships can help you find a balance between keeping up and keeping rules. My 9-year-old son loves playing video games at his friends' houses, but we don't have them in our home. He now says he needs to have these games in order to host playdates here. How much should we keep up with what other families have to benefit our son's social life? My son plays a musical instrument, builds Legos, reads, and listens to music happily in his free time, so I don't feel that we need video games, however, I do sympathize with his wanting to impress friends. Dear Can't Keep Up,I haven't yet met a parent of a school-aged child who hasn't heard, usually in the form of whining, "Everyone else's parents let them!" My own children have informed me that everyone else has candy in their lunches on the daily, and we are, in fact, the strictest parents ever for insisting they eat sandwiches and fruit. Of course, I know this is not true, but nevertheless, they're persuasive. It's so easy to raise our children in the carefully curated environment we want for them ... until they have to do things like go to school and make friends. This is part of our own growing pains as parents?balancing what we want for our kids socially (who doesn't want their child to feel accepted?) while also preserving our values in the home and family we have so thoughtfully created during their younger years. Your question brings up an interesting twist on this age-old complaint because it's not about changing your rules at home to be like that abstract group, "everyone else;" it's a more immediate and real concern about changing what you do at home to help your son feel more confident about hosting his friends. Understand His AskAlthough we may rush to the cliche, "if your friends jumped off a bridge, would you?" to instill confidence in one's own individuality, the reality is that as social beings, we do a lot of conforming. That's kind of how social groups and community end up working out. So, I appreciate your acknowledgment that your son is not challenging you to be like "all the other parents," but is wanting to impress his friends and not feel too different. As much as we prize individuality in parenting and want to nurture confidence in each of our children's uniqueness, we want them to have friends and know how to get along with others. Part of developing strong social skills (by the way, very predictive of many types of success in adulthood) is finding common interests with peers. Research shows that from babyhood, children gravitate toward those who appear similar to them. When our kids want to be like the other kids, it's a natural and healthy part of their drive to be social beings. It doesn't mean we give them candy in their lunches every day or allow unlimited video game time, but we can at least acknowledge the importance of feeling like they belong, and, at least sometimes, find places where we can bend our rules. Collaborate on House Rules The great news is that your son sounds satisfied with his non-video-game home when it's not about having friends over. That is a major parenting achievement in this day and age, so give yourself a huge pat on the back! Then, think about ways to flex these rules with your son's social life in mind. At the age of nine, he can collaborate with you to develop a plan that falls in the middle of the two extremes: zero screens and hours full of screen time. Is there a way he could share what he loves to do at home, like building Legos, with what his friends love to do? Knowing how hard it can be to transition from screens, it might make sense to start with a non-video-game activity to test the waters, but with the permission to get out the video games afterward. Be Your Child's CoachThis is also when you have a license to eavesdrop. As your son's ultimate life guide, you can listen in to how his friends respond and how your son handles it. You can get a sense of what he's dealing with in terms of peer pressure, and if he needs any coaching to manage it. Best case scenario? Your son has kind and respectful friends who like your son for who he is and not what he has to offer. You discover this, and so does he. He becomes more confident in both his home as a fun place for friends, and in his friends. Likely scenario: It's not all that clear-cut, and there will be more discussions and tweaking. Regardless, it is an opportunity to figure out friendships and how to be an individual while also belonging. The Bottom LineIn between moments of my own 10-year-old daughter begging to watch "grown-up shows" like Stranger Things, she has actually thanked me for our rules. As much as she wants to test the limits, those limits also help her feel safe, and at least part of her knows that. Your son may also be grateful for your rules and the refuge they have created, but also grateful for your openness to be flexible around friends. Emily Edlynn, Ph.D., is the author of The Art and Science of Mom parenting blog and a mother of three from Oak Park, Illinois. She is a clinical psychologist in private practice who specializes in working with children and adolescents.By Emily Edlynn, Ph.D. Parents.com     Whoa! When It Comes to Video Games, an Hour a Day Is OK Playing video games for an hour per day can actually benefit kids, a new study says, but more than eight hours a week could be harmful. Can playing video games make you smarter?Yes and no. Spanish researchers studied the video game habits of more than 2,400 boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 11, and found that the "gamers" (who played about four hours a week on average) had faster reaction times than non-gamers, and registered "significantly" higher scores in school. Whoa! But the researchers also found that those same gamers weren't any more advanced than the non-gamers when it came to memory and attention skills, and any skill enhancements they did glean from gaming began to max out after about eight hours a week. In addition, the kids who played nine hours or more a week were more likely to have social and behavioral problems?things like conflicts with other kids, problematic conduct, and poor social skills. Plus, the more time kids spent gaming, the less time they spent sleeping. The bottom line? Our kids should be logging off at right around the hour-a-day mark. "One to nine hours per week seems to be safe," explained study author Dr. Jesus Pujol. "But playing more than nine hours?one hour on weekdays and two hours on weekend days?may not be recommended for children 7 to 11 years old." I'll be honest?my son is 10 and definitely spends more than four hours playing video games on the weekends. Which means he's got some big changes in store. Because while Dr. Pujol admits that spending a decent amount of time in front of a screen may be good, and even necessary, for our children, he added that time limits and the combination of gaming with physical/outdoor activity are recommended.Parents.com    
    • Local-East
    • 성남
    2020-02-26
  • Gut Troubles-Pain, Gassiness, Bloating, and More
    Everyone has pain or discomfort in their gut occasionally. Maybe you ate something that didn’t agree with you. Or you had an infection that made you sick to your stomach for a few days.   But if pain and other gut symptoms go on for weeks or longer, something more serious might be wrong. Digestive system diseases and disorders are very common. Around 60 to 70 million people in the U.S. live with a digestive disease.   It’s important not to ignore symptoms in your gut. Many digestive disorders are easiest to treat when they first develop. Potential Causes One of the most serious gut disorders is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although it’s not very common. IBD occurs when immune system cells in the gut overreact to a perceived threat to your body. Often, that “threat” is the normal bugs that make up the microbiome?the microscopic creatures like bacteria, fungi, and viruses?that live in your gut. This overreaction can damage the digestive (gastrointestinal or GI) tract.   The two main types of IBD are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. “Crohn’s can occur anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus,” says Dr. Judy Cho, an IBD expert at Mount Sinai. Ulcerative colitis happens only in the large intestine.   These two diseases also differ in how deeply they can damage tissue. “Ulcerative colitis causes damage in the gut lining,” explains Dr. Dermot McGovern, who studies IBD at Cedars-Sinai. “Crohn’s disease can go all the way through the gut.” Severe cases of Crohn’s can lead to narrowing of the intestines and even holes in the gut.   Other conditions can harm the lining of the stomach and lead to a type of inflammation called gastritis. The most common cause of gastritis is infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori. Other causes include the long-term use of some pain medications. If left untreated, gastritis can lead to painful ulcers.   Twelve percent of people in the U.S. have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). “This is a very common disorder. It’s characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits,” says Dr. Anthony Lembo, an IBS researcher at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.   Researchers don’t understand exactly what causes IBS. It may have different causes in different people. Sometimes it involves problems with how the brain and gut work together.   Other things that can cause pain and discomfort in the GI tract are acid reflux or food sensitivities. Pinpointing the Problem It can be tricky to diagnose a digestive disease because they share a lot of symptoms, explains Cho. Symptoms of many gut conditions include pain, gassiness, bloating, and diarrhea.   “But for IBD, there are several red-flag symptoms,” she says. These are blood in the stool, weight loss, and signs of inflammation found in a blood test. A sign of IBD in children is failure to grow, Cho adds.   IBS can give some people diarrhea and others constipation. Some people go back and forth between the two.   Gastritis and food sensitivities can also cause long-term gut discomfort. To figure out what’s causing gut troubles, doctors may need to run a variety of tests. These can include blood tests and a stool test to look for infection.   Some people may have an imaging test, such as a CT scan. Others may need to have an endoscopy. Endoscopy uses a long, flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end to look in the intestines or stomach. Treating Pain and Discomfort While symptoms for different gut disorders can be similar, treatments vary widely. For gastritis caused by bacterial infection, antibiotics are used to kill the germs. If medications are causing gastritis, switching to a different kind of drug will usually allow the stomach to heal.   Food sensitivities can be managed by changing your diet. A nutritionist can help you figure out what foods might be irritating your gut. Acid reflux can also often be improved by changes in your diet and medication.   Treatment isn’t one-size-fits-all for IBS, Lembo explains, because it can have different causes. Some people can get some relief by adjusting their diet. (See the Wise Choices box for foods that can trigger gut symptoms.)   “We also tell patients to eat two to three meals a day, maybe have a snack or two. But don’t eat all day long. Give your gut a chance to rest,” he says.   And while stress doesn’t cause IBS, it can trigger flare-ups of symptoms in many people, says Lembo. Stress reduction strategies and cognitive behavior therapy?a type of talk therapy?can help some people manage symptoms of IBS.   IBD is harder to treat than most gut disorders. “It’s impossible to cure IBD right now,” says Cho. Treatments focus on stopping inflammation long enough to allow the gut tissue to heal, she explains.   Some medications used for IBD control inflammation. Other newer drugs suppress the immune system. But these newer drugs can have serious side effects and are usually only used when others don’t work.   “Research has discovered that the earlier you use these medications, the more likely you are to respond,” says McGovern. So, people with high-risk disease may get these drugs first now, he explains. Looking for Better Treatments Researchers are searching for new ways to prevent and manage gut disorders. Lembo, for example, is testing whether peppermint oil can help the gut muscles relax in people with IBS.   Existing treatments for IBD only work for about a third of people who try them. And even then, McGovern says, they may lose their effects over time.   Both Cho and McGovern are working to understand the genetics of IBD. This information could be used at all stages of the disease, explains Cho. For example, if a test could identify children at higher risk of developing IBD later in life, “theoretically it could be prevented,” she says. Strategies could include giving anti-inflammatory drugs before IBD develops or changing the gut microbiome to prevent an immune attack.   “And what we’re all interested in is: Can we use some of these genetic signatures to identify new drug targets for IBD?” adds McGovern. That could also eventually help predict who would most likely benefit from a drug, he says.   One of the newest drugs being tested for IBD was based on a genetic discovery, Cho explains. “There’s increasing precision in treatment,” she says. “Using genetic knowledge to help choose therapies for IBD is something that I think is doable in the next five to 10 years.”   For now, talk with your doctor if gut discomfort or pain are impacting your quality of life. Available treatments can help most people get their insides back in order again.   NIH(News in Health), USA
    • 다문화가족
    • 적응 안정기
    2020-02-25
  • ‘Introducing the traditional Arts of Korea!’
      Gugak The term gugak, which literally means “national music,” refers to traditional Korean music and other related art forms including songs, dances and ceremonial movements. The history of music in Korea should be as long as Korean history itself, but it was only in the early 15th century, during the reign of King Sejong of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), that Korean music became a subject of serious study and was developed into a system, resulting in the creation of the oldest mensural notation system, called jeongganbo, in Asia. King Sejong’s efforts to reform the court music led not only to the creation of Korea’s own notation system but also to the composition of a special ritual music to be performed during the Royal Ancestral Rite at the Jongmyo Shrine?inscribed on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2001?and Yeomillak, or “Joy of the People.” The term gugak was first used by the Jangagwon, a government agency of late Joseon responsible for music, to distinguish traditional Korean music from foreign music.   Traditional Korean music is typically classified into several types: the “legitimate music” (called jeongak or jeongga) enjoyed by the royalty and aristocracy of Joseon; folk music including pansori, sanjo and japga; jeongjae (court music and dance) performed for the King at celebratory state events; music and dance connected with shamanic and Buddhist traditions such as salpuri, seungmu, and beompae; and poetic songs beloved of the literati elite such as gagok and sijo. Of the numerous folk songs, Arirang?inscribed on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2012?is particularly cherished by the common people as there are many variations with special lyrics and melodies devised to touch their hearts.   The Korean people have also developed a wide range of musical instruments. These traditional musical instruments are generally divided into three categories: wind instruments such as the piri, daegeum, danso and taepyeongso; stringed instruments such as the gayageum, geomungo, haegeum, ajaeng and bipa; and percussion instruments such as the buk, janggu, pyeonjong, pyeongyeong, kkwaenggwari and jing. Folk Dance Korean people have inherited a great variety of folk dances such as salpurichum (spiritual purification dance), gutchum (shamanic ritual dance), taepyeongmu (dance of peace), hallyangchum (idler’s dance), buchaechum (fan dance), geommu (sword dance), and seungmu (monk’s dance). Of these, talchum (mask dance) and pungmul nori (play with musical instruments) are known for their satirical targeting of the corrupt aristocracy of Joseon and their close connection with rural communities, which had long been the bedrock of Korean culture and tradition. Most performances are presented in a marketplace or on the fields and involve drumming, dancing, and singing. Painting and Calligraphy Painting has always been a major genre of Korean art since ancient times. The art of ancient Korea is represented by the tomb murals of Goguryeo (37 B.C. - 668 A.D.) which contain valuable clues to the beliefs of the early Korean people about humanity and the universe as well as to their artistic sensibilities and techniques. The artists of Goryeo (918-1392) were interested in capturing Buddhist icons and bequeathed some great masterpieces, while the literati elite of Joseon was more attracted to the symbolism of plants and animals, such as the Four Noble Lords (Sagunja, namely, the orchid, chrysanthemum, bamboo, and plum tree) and the Ten Creatures of Longevity (Sipjangsaeng), as well as idealized landscapes.   Korea in the 18th century saw the arrival of two great artists, Kim Hong-do and Sin Yun-bok, both of whom developed a passionate interest in depicting the daily activities of ordinary people in their work. Kim Hong-do preferred depicting a kaleidoscope of people in various situations and scenes of everyday life, whereas Sin Yun-bok, for his part, devoted his efforts to capturing erotic moments in works that were surprisingly voyeuristic for the period.   Calligraphy, which developed in Korea under the influence of China, is the art of handwriting in which the beauty of the lines and forms of characters and the energy contained in brush strokes and subtle shades of ink are appreciated. While calligraphy is an independent genre of art, it has been closely related with ink and wash painting since these forms use similar techniques and the tools commonly called the “four friends of the study” (i.e. paper, brush, ink stick and ink stone). Korea has produced an abundance of master calligraphers of whom Kim Jeong-hui (1786-1856) is particularly famous for developing his own style, which is known as Chusache or Chusa Style (Chusa was his pen name). His calligraphic works fascinated even the Chinese masters of his time and are still widely admired for their remarkably modern artistic beauty. Pottery Korean pottery, which nowadays attracts the highest praise from international collectors, is typically divided into three groups: Cheongja (blue-green celadon), Buncheong (slip-coated stoneware), and Baekja (white porcelain). Celadon refers to Korean stoneware which underwent major development in the hands of Goryeo potters some 700 to 1,000 years ago. Celadon pottery is marked by an attractive jade blue surface and the unique Korean inlay technique used to decorate it. Gangjin of Jeollanam-do and Buan of Jeollabuk-do were its two main producers during the Goryeo Period (918-1392). White porcelain ware represents the ceramic art of the Joseon Period (1392-1910). While some of these porcelain wares display a milky white surface, many are decorated with a great variety of designs painted in oxidized iron, copper, or the priceless cobalt blue pigment imported from Persia via China. The Royal Court of Joseon ran its own kilns in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, producing products of the very highest quality. The advanced techniques used in the production of white porcelain wares were introduced to Japan by Joseon potters kidnapped during the Imjin Waeran (Japanese Invasion of Korea, 1592-1598).   The third main group of Korean pottery, Buncheong, was made by Goryeo potters after the fall of their Kingdom in 1392. This type of pottery is characterized by its slip-coated surface and delightfully simple decorative designs created using several different techniques.   Korea.net    
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    2020-02-03
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